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    Gastroparesis

    Gastroparesis diabeticorum; Delayed gastric emptying

    Gastroparesis is a condition that reduces the ability of the stomach to empty its contents. It does not involvea blockage (obstruction).

    Causes

    The exact cause of gastroparesis is unknown.It may be caused by a disruption of nerve signals to the stomach. The condition is a common complication of diabetes. It can also followsome surgeries.

    Risk factors for gastroparesis include:

    • Diabetes
    • Gastrectomy (surgery to remove part of the stomach)
    • Systemic sclerosis
    • Use of medication that blocks certain nerve signals (anticholinergic medication)

    Symptoms

    • Abdominal distention
    • Hypoglycemia (in people with diabetes)
    • Nausea
    • Premature abdominal fullness after meals
    • Weight loss without trying
    • Vomiting

    Exams and Tests

    • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)
    • Gastric emptying study (using isotope labeling)
    • Upper GI series

    Treatment

    People with diabetes should always control their blood sugar levels. Better control of blood sugar levels may improve symptoms of gastroparesis. Eating small meals and soft foods may also help relieve some symptoms.

    Medicatines that may help include:

    • Cholinergic drugs, which act on acetylcholine nerve receptors
    • Erythromycin
    • Metoclopramide, a medicine that helps empty the stomach
    • Serotonin antagonist drugs, which act on serotonin receptors

    Other treatments may include:

    • Botulinum toxin (Botox) injected into the outlet of the stomach (pylorus)
    • Surgical procedure that creates an opening between the stomach and small intestine to allow food to move through the digestive tract more easily (gastroenterostomy)

    Outlook (Prognosis)

    Many treatments seem to provide only temporary benefit.

    Possible Complications

    Ongoing nausea and vomiting may cause:

    • Dehydration
    • Electrolyte imbalances
    • Malnutrition

    People with diabetes may have serious complications from poor blood sugar control.

    When to Contact a Medical Professional

    Changes inyour diet may help control symptoms. Call your health care provider if symptoms continue or if you have new symptoms.

    References

    Koch KL. Gastric neuromuscular function and neuromuscular disorders. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2010:chap 48.

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    • Digestive system

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    • Digestive system organs

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      • Digestive system

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      • Digestive system organs

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      A Closer Look

        Tests for Gastroparesis

          Review Date: 10/8/2012

          Reviewed By: George F. Longstreth, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, San Diego, California. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, and Stephanie Slon.

          The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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