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    Familial hypertriglyceridemia

    Familial hypertriglyceridemia is a common disorder passed down through families in which the level of triglycerides (a type of fat) in a person's blood are higher than normal.

    The condition is not associated with a significant increase in cholesterol levels.

    Familial hypertriglyceridemia is caused by a genetic defect, which is passed on in an autosomal dominant fashion. This means that if you get a bad copy of the gene from just one of your parents, you will have the condition.

    Some people with this condition also have high levels of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). The reason for the rise in triglycerides and VLDL is not understood.

    Familial hypertriglyceridemia does not usually become noticeable until puberty or early adulthood. Obesity, hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels), and high levels of insulin are often also present and may cause even higher triglyceride levels. Alcohol and estrogen use can make the condition worse.

    You are more likely to have this condition if you have afamily history of hypertriglyceridemia orheart disease before age 50.

    Symptoms

    You may not notice any symptoms. Some people with the condition may have coronary artery disease at an early age.

    Exams and Tests

    The doctor or nurse will perform a physical exam and ask questions about your family history and symptoms.

    If you have a family history of this condition, youshould have blood tests to check very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglyceride levels. Blood tests usually show a mild to moderate increase in triglycerides (about 200 to 500 mg/dL).

    A coronary risk profile may also be done.

    Treatment

    The goal of treatment is to control conditions that can raise triglyceride levels such as obesity, hypothyroidism, and diabetes.

    Your doctor may tell you not to drink alcohol. Because certain birth control pills can raise triglyceride levels, you should carefully discuss their use with your doctor.

    Treatment also involves avoiding excess calories and foods high in saturated fats and carbohydrates. See also: Heart disease and diet

    If high triglyceride levels persist despite diet changes, medication may be needed. Nicotinic acid, gemfibrozil, and fenofibrate have been shown to lower triglyceride levels in people with this condition.

    Outlook (Prognosis)

    Losing weight and keeping diabetes under control helps improve the outcome.

    Possible Complications

    • Pancreatitis
    • Coronary artery disease

    Prevention

    Screening family members for high triglycerides may detect the disease early.

    References

    Genest J, Libby P. Lipoprotein disorders and cardiovascular disease. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA:Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 47.

    Semenkovich, CF. Disorders of lipid metabolism. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 213.

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      A Closer Look

        Tests for Familial hypertriglyceridemia

          Review Date: 6/4/2012

          Reviewed By: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc. David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.

          The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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