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    Pseudogout

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease; CPPD disease

    Pseudogout is a joint disease that can cause attacks of arthritis. Like with gout, crystals form in the joints. But in pseudogout, the crystals are not formed from uric acid.

    Causes

    Pseudogout is caused by the collection of salt called calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The buildup of this salt forms crystals in the joints. This leads to attacks of joint swelling and pain in the knees, wrists, ankles, and other joints.

    Among older adults, pseudogout is a common cause of sudden (acute) arthritis in one joint.

    Pseudogout mainly affects the elderly. However, it can sometimes affect younger patients who have conditions such as:

    • Acromegaly
    • Hemochromatosis
    • Ochronosis
    • Parathyroid disease
    • Thyroid disease
    • Wilson disease

    Because the symptoms are similar, pseudogout can be misdiagnosed as:

    • Gouty arthritis (gout)
    • Osteoarthritis
    • Rheumatoid arthritis

    Symptoms

    • Attacks of joint pain and fluid buildup in the joint, leading to joint swelling
    • Chronic (long-term) arthritis

    There are no symptoms between attacks.

    Exams and Tests

    • An examination of joint fluid shows white blood cells and calcium pyrophosphate crystals.
    • Joint x-rays may show joint damage and calcium deposits in joint spaces.

    Carefully testing crystals found in the joints can help the doctor diagnose the condition. Because most conditions involving joint pain are treatedwith the same medicines (such as steroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), you may still get the right treatment even if your diagnosis was incorrect at first.

    Treatment

    Treatment may involve removing fluid to relieve pressure in the joint. A needle is placed into the joint and fluid is removed (aspirated).

    Steroid injections may help treat severelyswollen joints. Oral steroids are sometimes used whenmany joints are swollen.

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDS) may help ease painful attacks. Colchicine may be useful in some people.

    Outlook (Prognosis)

    Most people do well with treatment.

    Possible Complications

    Permanent joint damage can occur without treatment.

    When to Contact a Medical Professional

    Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you have attacks of joint swelling and joint pain.

    Prevention

    There is no known way to prevent this disorder. However, treating other problems that may cause pseudogout may make the condition less severe, and may help prevent it from developing in patients who don't already have it.

    References

    Goldman L, Ausiello DA. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007.

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      A Closer Look

        Tests for Pseudogout

          Review Date: 6/15/2012

          Reviewed By: Ariel D. Teitel, MD, MBA, Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.

          The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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