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    Basal ganglia dysfunction

    Extra-pyramidal syndrome

    Basal ganglia dysfunction is a problem with the deep brain structures that help start and control movement.

    Causes

    Conditions that cause injury to the brain can damage the basal ganglia. Such conditions include:

    • Carbon monoxide poisoning
    • Copper poisoning
    • Drug overdose
    • Head injury
    • Infection
    • Liver disease
    • Metabolic problems
    • Multiple sclerosis
    • Side effects of certain medications
    • Stroke
    • Tumors

    Many brain disorders are associated with basal ganglia dysfunction. They include:

    • Dystonia
    • Huntington's disease
    • Multiple system atrophy
    • Parkinson's disease
    • Progressive supranuclear palsy
    • Wilson's disease

    This list may not be all-inclusive.

    Symptoms

    Damage to the basal ganglia cells may cause problems with one's ability to control speech, movement, and posture. A person with basal ganglia dysfunction may have difficulty starting, stopping, or sustaining movement. Depending on which area is affected, there may also be problems with memory and other thought processes.

    In general, symptoms vary and may include:

    • Movement changes, such as involuntary or slowedmovements
    • Increased muscle tone
    • Muscle spasms and muscle rigidity
    • Memory loss
    • Problems finding words
    • Tremor
    • Uncontrollable, repeated movements, speech, or cries (tics)
    • Walking difficulty

    Exams and Tests

    The doctor or nurse will examine you and ask questions about your symptoms and medical history.Blood and imaging testsmay be needed. This may include:

    • CT and MRI of the head
    • Genetic testing
    • Magnetic resonance angiography to look at the blood vessels in the neck and brain
    • Positron emission tomography (PET) to look at the metabolism of the brain
    • Blood tests to check blood sugar, thyroid function, liver function, and iron and copper levels

    Treatment

    Treatment depends on the cause of the disorder.

    Outlook (Prognosis)

    How well a person does depends on the cause of the dysfunction. Some causes are reversible, while others require lifelong treatment.

    When to Contact a Medical Professional

    Call your health care provider if you have any abnormal or involuntary movements, unexplainable falls, or if you or others notice that you are shaky or slow.

    References

    Lang AE. Parkinsonism. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 416.

    Jankovic J. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley’s Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap 71.

    Lang AE. Other movement disorders. In: Goldman L, SchaferAI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 417.

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              Tests for Basal ganglia dysfunction

                Review Date: 8/28/2012

                Reviewed By: Luc Jasmin, MD, PhD, Department of Neurosurgery at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, and Department of Anatomy at UCSF, San Francisco, CA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.

                The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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