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    Yellow fever

    Yellow fever is a viral infectionspread by mosquitoes.

    Causes

    Yellow fever is caused by a virus carried by mosquitoes. You can catch this disease if you are bitten by a mosquito infected with this virus.

    This disease is common in South America and in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Anyone can get yellow fever, but the elderly have a higher risk of severe infection.

    If a person is bitten by an infected mosquito, symptoms usually develop 3 - 6 days later.

    Symptoms

    Yellow fever has three stages:

    • Stage 1 (infection): Headache, muscle and joint aches, fever, flushing, loss of appetite, vomiting, and jaundice are common. Symptoms often go away briefly after about 3-4 days.
    • Stage 2 (remission): Fever and othersymptoms go away. Most people will recover at this stage, but others may get worse within 24 hours.
    • Stage 3 (intoxication): Problems with many organs occur. This may include heart, liver, and kidney failure, bleeding disorders, seizures, coma, and delirium.

    Symptoms may include:

    • Irregular heart beats(arrhythmias)
    • Bleeding (may progress to hemorrhage)
    • Coma
    • Decreased urination
    • Delirium
    • Fever
    • Headache
    • Yellow skin and eyes (jaundice)
    • Muscle aches
    • Red eyes, face, tongue
    • Seizures
    • Vomiting, possibly vomiting blood

    Exams and Tests

    The health care provider will examine the person. This may showliver and kidney failure and shock.

    It is important to tell your doctorif you have traveled to areas where the disease is known to thrive. Blood tests can confirm the diagnosis.

    Treatment

    There is no specific treatment for yellow fever. Treatment for symptoms can include:

    • Blood products for severe bleeding
    • Dialysis for kidney failure
    • Fluids through a vein (intravenous fluids)

    Outlook (Prognosis)

    Yellow fever can cause severe problems, including internal bleeding. Death is possible.

    Possible Complications

    • Coma
    • Death
    • Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
    • Kidney failure
    • Liver failure
    • Parotitis
    • Secondary bacterial infections
    • Shock

    When to Contact a Medical Professional

    Get medical attention at least 10 - 14 days before traveling to an endemic area for yellow fever to find out whether you should be vaccinated against the disease.

    Tell your health care provider right away if you or your child develop fever, headache, muscle aches, vomiting, or jaundice, especially if you have traveled to an area where yellow fever is known to occur.

    Prevention

    If you will be traveling to an area where yellow fever is common:

    • Sleep in screened housing
    • Use mosquito repellents
    • Wear clothing that fully covers your body

    There is an effective vaccine against yellow fever. Ask your doctor at least 10 - 14 days before traveling if you should be vaccinated against yellow fever.

    References

    Bausch DG. Viral hemorrhagic fevers.In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds.Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 389.

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            Tests for Yellow fever

              Review Date: 12/6/2011

              Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

              The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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