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    Cooking utensils and nutrition

    Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition.

    Function

    Pots, pans, and other tools used in cooking often do more than just hold the food. The material that they are made from can leach into the food that is being cooked.

    Common materials used in cookware and utensils are:

    • Aluminum
    • Copper
    • Iron
    • Lead
    • Stainless steel
    • Teflon™ (polytetrafluoroethlyene)

    Both lead and copper have been linked to illness.

    Food Sources

    Cooking utensils can affect any cooked foods.

    Recommendations

    Choose metal cookware and bakeware that you can be easily cleaned. There should be no cracks or rough edges that can trap or hold food or bacteria.

    Avoid using metal or hard plastic utensils on cookware. These utensils can scratch surfaces and cause pots and pans to wear out faster. Use wood, bamboo or silicone instead. Never use cookware if the coating has started to peel or wear away.

    Aluminum

    Aluminum cookware is very popular. Nonstick, scratch-resistant anodized aluminum cookware is a good choice. The hard surface is easy to clean. It is sealed so aluminum cannot get into food.

    There have been concerns in the past that aluminum cookware increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease. The Alzheimer's Association reports that using aluminum cookware is not a major risk for the disease.

    Uncoated aluminum cookware is a greater risk. This type of cookware can easily melt. It can cause burns if it gets too hot. Still, research has shown that the amount of aluminum this cookware leaches into food from is very small.

    Lead

    Children should be protected from ceramic cookware containing lead.

    • Acidic foods such as oranges, tomatoes, or foods containing vinegar will cause more lead to be leached from ceramic cookware more than non-acidic foods like milk.
    • More lead will leach into hot liquids like coffee, tea, and soups than into cold beverages.
    • Do not use any dishware that has a dusty or chalky gray film on the glaze after it has been washed.

    Some ceramic cookware should not be used to hold food. This in includes items bought in another country or considered to be a craft, antique, or collectable. These pieces may not meet FDA specifications. Test kits can detect high levels of lead in ceramic cookware, but lower levels may also be dangerous.

    Iron

    Iron cookware may be a good choice. Cooking Cast iron pots may increase the amount of iron in the diet. Most of the time, this is a very small source of dietary iron.

    Teflon™

    Teflon™ is a brand name for a nonstick coating found on certain pots and pans. It contains a substance called polytetrafluoroethlyene.

    The nonstick types of these pans should be used only at low or medium heat. They should never be left unattended at high heat. This may cause the release of fumes that can irritate humans and household pets. When left unattended on the stove, empty cookware can heat up to 800 degrees within 5 minutes.

    There have been concerns about a possible link between Teflon™ and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a man-made chemical. The Environmental Protection Agency states that Teflon™ does not contain PFOA so the cookware poses no danger.

    Copper

    Copper pots are popular due to their even heating. But large amounts of copper from unlined cookware can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

    Some copper and brass pans are coated with another metal to prevent food from coming into contact with copper. Over time, these coatings can break down and allow copper to dissolve in food. Older copper cookware may have tin or nickel coatings and should not be used for cooking.

    Stainless Steel

    Stainless steel cookware is low in cost and can be used at high heat. It has a sturdy cookware surface that does not wear down easily. Most stainless steel cookware has copper or aluminum bottoms for even heating. Health problems from stainless steel are rare.

    Cutting Boards

    Choose a surface such as plastic, marble, glass, or pyroceramic. These materials are easier to clean than wood.

    Avoid contaminating vegetables with meat bacteria. Try using one cutting board for fresh produce and bread. Use a separate one for raw meat, poultry, and seafood. This will prevent bacteria on a cutting board food getting into raw foods.

    Cleaning cutting boards:

    • Wash all cutting boards with hot, soapy water after each use.
    • Rinse with clear water and air dry or pat dry with clean paper towels.
    • Acrylic, plastic, glass, and solid wood boards can be washed in a dishwasher (laminated boards may crack and split).

    Sanitizing cutting boards:

    • Use a solution of 1 tablespoon of unscented, liquid chlorine bleach per gallon of water for both wood and plastic cutting boards.
    • Flood the surface with the bleach solution and allow it to stand for several minutes.
    • Rinse with clear water and air dry or pat dry with clean paper towels.

    Replacing cutting boards:

    • Plastic and wooden cutting boards wear out over time.
    • Throw out cutting boards that are very worn or have deep grooves.

    Kitchen Sponges

    Kitchen sponges can grow harmful bacteria, yeasts, and molds.

    The United States Department of Agriculture says that the best ways to kill germs on a kitchen sponge are:

    • Microwave the sponge on high for one minute, which kills up to 99% of germs.
    • Clean it in the dishwasher, using both wash and dry cycles and a water temperature of 140 degrees F or higher.

    Soap and water or bleach and water do not work as well for killing germs on sponges. Another option is to buy a new sponge each week.

    References

    United States Department of Agriculture. Food Safety and Inspection Service. Cutting Boards and Food Safety. Accessed May 3, 2011.

    United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service. Best Ways to Clean Kitchen Sponges. Accessed May 3, 2011,

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          A Closer Look

            Self Care

              Review Date: 4/30/2013

              Reviewed By: Alison Evert, MS, RD, CDE, Nutritionist, University of Washington Medical Center Diabetes Care Center, Seattle, Washington. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.

              The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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