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    Scorpions

    This article describes the effects of a scorpion sting.

    This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

    Poisonous Ingredient

    • Scorpion venom

    Where Found

    • Scorpions
    • Related species

    Most varieties of North American scorpions are nonpoisonous. The poisonous ones in the United States live mainly in the southwestern deserts.

    Symptoms

    In mild cases, the only symptom may be a mild tingling or burning at the site of the sting.

    In severe cases, symptoms may include:

    • Eyes and ears
      • Double vision
    • Lungs
      • Difficulty breathing
      • No breathing
      • Rapid breathing
    • Nose, mouth, and throat
      • Drooling
      • Spasm of the larynx (voice box)
      • Thick-feeling tongue
    • Heart and blood
      • High blood pressure
      • Increased or decreased heart rate
      • Irregular heartbeat
    • Kidneys and bladder
      • Urinary incontinence
      • Urine output, decreased
    • Muscles and joints
      • Muscle spasms
    • Nervous system
      • Convulsions
      • Paralysis
      • Random movements of head, eye, or neck
      • Restlessness
      • Seizures
      • Stiffness
    • Stomach and intestinal tract
      • Abdominal cramps
      • Fecal incontinence

    Home Care

    Most stings from North American scorpions do not require treatment. Children 6 years and younger are more like to have harmful effects from poisonous types.

    Keep the patient and area of the sting still. Place ice (wrapped in a washcloth or other suitable covering) on the site of the sting for 10 minutes and then off for 10 minutes. Repeat this process. If the patient has circulatory problems, reduce the time the ice is on the skin to prevent possible damage.

    Before Calling Emergency

    Determine the following information:

    • The patient's age, weight, and condition
    • Exact type of insect, if possible
    • The time stung

    Poison Control

    The National Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions.

    This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

    Take the insect with you to the hospital, if possible.

    See: Poison control center - emergency number

    What to Expect at the Emergency Room

    The health care provider will measure and monitor the patient's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. The wound and symptoms will be treated as appropriate. The patient may receive:

    • A medicine called antiserum (only in the most severe cases)
    • Breathing assistance, if needed
    • Fluids through a vein (by IV)

    Outlook (Prognosis)

    Death rarely occurs in patients older than 6 years. If symptoms rapidly become worse within the first 2 - 4 hours after the sting, a poor outcome is more likely. Symptoms usually last 24 - 48 hours. Some deaths have occurred as late as 4 days after the sting.

    References

    Steen CJ, Schwartz RA. Arthropod bites and stings. In: Wolff K, Goldsmith LA, Katz SI, et al., eds. Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2008:chap 210.

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          Review Date: 12/15/2011

          Reviewed By: Eric Perez, MD, St. Luke's / Roosevelt Hospital Center, NY, NY, and Pegasus Emergency Group (Meadowlands and Hunterdon Medical Centers), NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.

          The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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