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    Chloride test - blood

    Serum chloride test

    Chloride is a type of electrolyte. It works with other electrolytes such as potassium, sodium, and carbon dioxide (CO2). These substances help keep the proper balance of body fluids and maintain the body's acid-base balance.

    This articleis aboutthe laboratory test used to measure the amount of chloride in the fluid portion (serum) of the blood.

    How the Test is Performed

    A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand.

    How to Prepare for the Test

    Many medicines can interfere with blood test results.

    • Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test.
    • Do not stop or change your medications without talking to your doctor first.

    Why the Test is Performed

    Your doctor may order this test if you have signs that your body's fluid level or acid-base balance is disturbed.

    This test is usually ordered with other blood tests, such as a basic or comprehensive metabolic panel.

    Normal Results

    A typical normal range is 96 - 106 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

    Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.

    The example above shows the common measurement rangefor results for these tests. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different specimens.

    What Abnormal Results Mean

    A greater-than-normal level of chloride is called hyperchloremia. It may be due to:

    • Bromide poisoning
    • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (used to treat glaucoma)
    • Diarrhea
    • Metabolic acidosis
    • Respiratory alkalosis (compensated)
    • Renal tubular acidosis

    A lower-than-normal level of chloride is called hypochloremia. It may be due to:

    • Addison's disease
    • Bartter syndrome
    • Burns
    • Congestive heart failure
    • Dehydration
    • Excessive sweating
    • Gastric suction
    • Hyperaldosteronism
    • Metabolic alkalosis
    • Respiratory acidosis (compensated)
    • Syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone secretion(SIADH)
    • Vomiting

    This test may also be done to help rule out or diagnose:

    • Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II
    • Primary hyperparathyroidism

    References

    Seifter JR. Acid-base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds.Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 120.

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          Review Date: 5/5/2013

          Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.

          The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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