Antidiabetic medications - biguanides
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Antidiabetic medications - biguanides

Table of Contents > Depletions > Antidiabetic medications - biguanides     Print

Medications
Depletions
Editorial Note
Supporting Research

Medications

  • Metformin
    • Glucophage
    • Glucophage XR

Depletions

Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)

Low levels of folic acid have been linked to anemia, heart disease, birth defects, and colon cancer. Symptoms may include fatigue, mouth sores, swollen tongue, and poor growth.

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

Noticeable symptoms of a vitamin B12 deficiency can take years to show up. Irritability, weakness, numbness, anemia, loss of appetite, headache, personality changes, and confusion are some of the signs and symptoms associated with very low levels of vitamin B12. Low levels of this vitamin may also be associated with an increased risk of colon cancer, heart disease, brain problems, and birth defects.

Editorial Note

The information presented here covers some of the nutrients that may be lowered when you take certain medications. The signs and symptoms listed can be caused by other conditions. So if you have these signs and symptoms, it doesn't always mean you have low levels of these nutrients. Many things affect the level of nutrients, including your medical history, diet, and lifestyle, as well as how long you have been taking the medication. Please talk with your health care provider. He or she can best address your health care needs and see if you are at risk for low levels of any nutrients.

Supporting Research

Andrès E, Federici L. Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients receiving metformin: clinical data. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(7):729; author reply 730-1.

Buvat DR. Use of metformin is a cause of vitamin B12 deficiency. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69(2):264; author reply 264, 266.

Dali-Yousef N, Andres E. An update on cobalamin deficiency in adults. QJM. 2009;102(1):17-28.

Fisman Ez, Motro M, Tenenbaum A. Non-insulin antidiabetic therapy in cardiac patients: current problems and future prospects. Adv. Cardiol. 2008;45:154-70.

Fitzgerald MA. Drug-induced vitamin B12 deficiency. Nurse Pract. 2007;32(9):6-7.

Hvas AM, Nexo E. Diagnosis and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency -- an update. Haematologica. 2006;91(11):1506-12.

Liu KW, Dai LK, Jean W. Metformin-related vitamin B12 deficiency. Age Ageing. 2006;35(2):200-1.

Moretti R, Torre P, Antonello RM, Cazzato G, Cattaruzza T, Scapicchio PL. Vitamin B12 and folate depletion: clinical evidence in a neurological population. Neurologist. 2004;10(6):338-43.

Pelton R, LaValle J, Hawkins EB, et al. Drug Induced Nutrient Depletion Handbook. Hudson, OH:LexiComp, Inc.;2001:409-410.

Reynolds E. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the nervous system. Lancet Neurol. 2006;5(11):949-60.

Svenson J. Neurologic disease and vitamin B12 deficiency. Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25(8):987.e3-4.

Review Date: 9/29/2012
Reviewed By: Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed HealthCare Network.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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