Your body needs iron for red blood cells to carry oxygen to all your organs and tissues. Low levels of iron can cause anemia and a weakened immune system. Symptoms of anemia include being tired all the time, dizziness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and sometimes irregular heartbeat.
Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)
Low levels of folic acid have been linked to anemia, heart disease, birth defects, and colon cancer. Symptoms may include fatigue, mouth sores, swollen tongue, and poor growth.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
Low levels of vitamin C can cause your gums to bleed and your skin to bruise easily. Other symptoms include wounds that are slow to heal, dry hair, fatigue and anemia, and dry, rough skin. In severe cases, vitamin C deficiency leads to scurvy, a life-threatening condition that affects muscles and bones. Scurvy is rare, however, because it's easy to get enough vitamin C in your diet.
Signs and symptoms of low levels of zinc include loss of appetite or sense of taste, weakened immune system, slow growth, skin changes, and being more susceptible to infection.
The selected depletions information presented here identifies some of the nutrients that may be depleted by certain medications. The signs and symptoms associated with nutrient deficiency may also indicate conditions other than nutrient deficiency. If you are experiencing any of the signs or symptoms mentioned, it does not necessarily mean that you are nutrient deficient. Nutrient depletion depends upon a number of factors, including your medical history, diet, and lifestyle, as well as the length of time you have been taking the medication. Please consult your health care provider; he or she can best assess and address your individual health care needs and determine if you are at risk for nutrient depletions from these medications, as well as others not listed here.
Acuna-Castroviejo D, Escames G, Rodriguez MI, Lopez LC. Melatonin role in the mitochondrial function. Front Biosci. 2007;12:947-63.
Agarwal R. Nonhematological benefits of iron. Am J Nephrol. 2007;27(6):565-71.
Altun A, Ugur-Altun B. Melatonin: therapeutic and clinical utilization. Int J Clin Pract. 2007;61(5):835-45.
Ames BN. Micronutrient deficiencies: A major cause of DNA damage. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2000;889:87-106.
Hambidge M. Human zinc deficiency. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S Suppl):1344S-1349S.
Lewy AJ, Emens J, Jackman A, Yuhas K. Circadian uses of melatonin in humans. Chronobiol Int. 2006;23(1-2):403-12.
Maret W, Sandstead HH. Zinc requirements and the risks and benefits of zinc supplementation. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2006;20(1):3-18.
Moretti R, Torre P, Antonello RM, Cazzato G, Cattaruzza T, Scapicchio PL. Vitamin B12 and folate depletion: clinical evidence in a neurological population. Neurologist. 2004;10(6):338-43.
Pelton R, LaValle J, Hawkins EB, et al. Drug Induced Nutrient Depletion Handbook. Hudson, OH:LexiComp, Inc.;2001:425-427.
Piccirillo JF. Melatonin. Prog Brain Res. 2007;166:331-3.
Powell SR. The antioxidant properties of zinc. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S Suppl):1447S-54S.
Reiter RJ. Melatonin: clinical relevance. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;17(2):273-85.
Tubek S, Grzanka P, Tubek I. Role of Zinc in Hemostasis: A Review. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2007; [Epub ahead of print].
Wintergerst ES, Maggini S, Hornig DH. Contribution of selected vitamins and trace elements to immune function. Ann Nutr Metab. 2007;51(4):301-23.
Zimmermann MB, Hurrell RF. Nutritional iron deficiency. Lancet. 2007;370(9586):511-20.