Caput succedaneum
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Caput succedaneum

Definition

Caput succedaneum is swelling of the scalp in a newborn. It is most often brought on by pressure from the uterus or vaginal wall during a head-first (vertex) delivery.

Alternative Names

Caput

Causes

A caput succedaneum is more likely to form during a prolonged or difficult delivery. This is especially true after the membranes have ruptured, because the amniotic sac is no longer providing a protective cushion for the baby's head. Vacuum extraction can also increase the chances of a caput succedaneum.

A caput succedaneum is sometimes identified by prenatal ultrasound even before labor or delivery begins. It has been found as early as 31 weeks of pregnancy. More often than not, this is associated with either premature rupture of the membranes or too little amniotic fluid (oligohydramnios). All other things being equal, the longer the membranes are intact, the less likely it is that a caput will form.

Symptoms

  • Soft, puffy swelling of part of the scalp in a newborn infant
  • Swelling may or may not have some degree of discoloration or bruising
  • Swelling may extend over the midline of the scalp
  • Most often seen on the portion of the head which presented first
  • May be associated with increased molding of the bones of the head

Exams and Tests

A physical examination will confirm that the swelling is a caput succedaneum. No testing is necessary.

Treatment

No treatment is necessary, and it usually heals spontaneously within a few days.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Complete recovery can be expected, with the scalp regaining its normal contour.

Possible Complications

Complications may include:

When to Contact a Medical Professional

This condition is usually noticed immediately after delivery of the child, so no call is necessary -- unless you have additional questions.

References

Mangurten HH. Birth Injuries. In: Fanaroff AA, Martin RJ, eds. Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine: Diseases of the Fetus and Infant. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2010.



Review Date: 6/28/2011
Reviewed By: Kimberly G Lee, MD, MSc, IBCLC, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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