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Anemia caused by low iron - children

Anemia - iron deficiency - children

 

Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. There are many types of anemia. Iron helps make red blood cells, so a lack of iron in the body may lead to anemia. The medical name of this problem is iron deficiency anemia.

Causes

 

Anemia caused by a low iron level is the most common form of anemia. The body gets iron through certain foods. It also reuses iron from old red blood cells.

A diet that does not have enough iron is the most common cause of this type of anemia in children. When a child is growing rapidly, such as during puberty, even more iron is needed.

Toddlers who drink too much cow's milk may also become anemic if they are not eating other healthy foods that have iron.

Other causes may be:

  • The body is not able to absorb iron well, even though the child is eating enough iron
  • Slow blood loss over a long period, often due to menstrual periods or bleeding in the digestive tract

Iron deficiency in children can also be related to lead poisoning.

 

Symptoms

 

Mild anemia may have no symptoms. As the iron level and blood counts become lower, your child may:

  • Act irritable
  • Become short of breath
  • Crave unusual foods
  • Eat less food
  • Feel tired or weak all the time
  • Have a sore tongue
  • Have headaches or dizziness

With more severe anemia, your child may have:

  • Blue-tinged or very pale whites of eyes
  • Brittle nails
  • Pale skin

 

Exams and Tests

 

The health care provider will perform a physical exam.

Blood tests that measure iron level in the body include:

  • Hematocrit
  • Serum ferritin
  • Serum iron
  • Total iron binding capacity (TIBC)

A measurement called iron saturation (serum iron/TIBC) often can show whether the child has enough iron in the body.

 

Treatment

 

Since children only absorb a small amount of the iron they eat, most children need to have 8 to 10 mg of iron per day.

Eating healthy foods is the most important way to prevent and treat iron deficiency. Good sources of iron include:

  • Apricots
  • Chicken, turkey, fish, and other meats
  • Dried beans, lentils, and soybeans
  • Eggs
  • Liver
  • Molasses
  • Oatmeal
  • Peanut butter
  • Prune juice
  • Raisins and prunes
  • Spinach, kale and other greens

If a healthy diet does not prevent or treat your child's low iron level and anemia, the doctor will likely recommend iron supplements for your child. These are taken by mouth.

DO NOT give your child iron supplements or vitamins with iron without checking with your child's doctor. The doctor will prescribe the right kind of supplement for your child. If your child takes too much iron, it can cause poisoning.

 

Outlook (Prognosis)

 

With treatment, the outcome is likely to be good. In most cases, the blood counts will return to normal in 2 months. It is important that the doctor find the cause of your child's iron deficiency.

 

Possible Complications

 

Anemia caused by a low iron level can affect a child's ability to learn in school. A low iron level can cause decreased attention span, reduced alertness, and learning problems in children.

A low iron level can cause the body to absorb too much lead.

 

Prevention

 

Eating a variety of healthy foods is the most important way to prevent and treat iron deficiency.

 

 

References

Fleming MD. Disorders of iron and copper metabolism, the sideroblastic anemias, and lead toxicity. In: Orkin SH, Fisher DE, Ginsburg D, Look AT, Lux SE, Nathan DG, eds. Nathan and Oski's Hematology and Oncology of Infancy and Childhood. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 11.

Sills R. Iron-deficiency anemia. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 455.

 
  • Red blood cells, target cells

    Red blood cells, target cells - illustration

    These abnormal red blood cells (RBCs) resemble targets. These cells are seen in association with some forms of anemia, and following the removal of the spleen (splenectomy).

    Red blood cells, target cells

    illustration

  • Formed elements of blood

    Formed elements of blood - illustration

    Blood transports oxygen and nutrients to body tissues and returns waste and carbon dioxide. Blood distributes nearly everything that is carried from one area in the body to another place within the body. For example, blood transports hormones from endocrine organs to their target organs and tissues. Blood helps maintain body temperature and normal pH levels in body tissues. The protective functions of blood include clot formation and the prevention of infection.

    Formed elements of blood

    illustration

  • Hemoglobin

    Hemoglobin - illustration

    Hemoglobin is the most important component of red blood cells. It is composed of a protein called heme, which binds oxygen. In the lungs, oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide. Abnormalities of an individual's hemoglobin value can indicate defects in the normal balance between red blood cell production and destruction. Both low and high values can indicate disease states.

    Hemoglobin

    illustration

    • Red blood cells, target cells

      Red blood cells, target cells - illustration

      These abnormal red blood cells (RBCs) resemble targets. These cells are seen in association with some forms of anemia, and following the removal of the spleen (splenectomy).

      Red blood cells, target cells

      illustration

    • Formed elements of blood

      Formed elements of blood - illustration

      Blood transports oxygen and nutrients to body tissues and returns waste and carbon dioxide. Blood distributes nearly everything that is carried from one area in the body to another place within the body. For example, blood transports hormones from endocrine organs to their target organs and tissues. Blood helps maintain body temperature and normal pH levels in body tissues. The protective functions of blood include clot formation and the prevention of infection.

      Formed elements of blood

      illustration

    • Hemoglobin

      Hemoglobin - illustration

      Hemoglobin is the most important component of red blood cells. It is composed of a protein called heme, which binds oxygen. In the lungs, oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide. Abnormalities of an individual's hemoglobin value can indicate defects in the normal balance between red blood cell production and destruction. Both low and high values can indicate disease states.

      Hemoglobin

      illustration

    A Closer Look

     

      Self Care

       

        Tests for Anemia caused by low iron - children

         

           

          Review Date: 2/11/2016

          Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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