The first and most important step in getting treatment for alcoholism is recognizing that you have a problem. Often, family members and close friends may urge treatment for the person with the addiction.
Treatment and ongoing recovery must address both physical and psychological addiction and may include inpatient treatment and/or Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). In an inpatient or residential program, the person generally stays in a hospital or center for 28 days, undergoing first detoxification (usually 4 - 7 days) and then individual and group therapy emphasizing abstinence. Talk to a doctor about what is best for you or your loved one.
- Attend Alcoholics Anonymous.
- Family members should attend Al-Anon to learn how to help the person with the addiction and to get help and support themselves.
- Exercise regularly to help reduce cravings.
Your doctor may prescribe the following medications:
For alcohol withdrawal
Benzodiazepines -- tranquilizers used during the first few days of treatment to help you withdraw safely from alcohol. These drugs include:
- Diazepam (Valium)
- Chlordiazepoxid (Librium)
- Lorazepam (Ativan)
- Oxazepam (Serax)
Anticonvulsants -- may also help with withdrawal symptoms and don’t have the potential for abuse (as benzodiazepines do). They include:
- Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
- Valprioc acid (Depakote)
- Phenytoin (Dilantin)
- Gabapentn (Neurontin)
- Baclofen (Lioresal, Lioresal Intrathecal, Gablofen)
To prevent relapse
Naltrexone (Revia, Vivitrol) -- used in combination with counseling, may lessen the craving for alcohol and help prevent a return to drinking. Taking Revia or Vivitrol blocks receptors in your brain so that you don’t get “high” from drinking. It is only used after detoxification -- that is, once you are no longer physically addicted to alcohol.
Acamprosate (Campral) -- may help restore the chemical balance in the brain. It is best used in combination with counseling.
Disulfiram (Antabuse) -- an older medication that discourages drinking by causing nausea, vomiting, and other unpleasant physical reactions when alcohol is used.
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements
Because chronic use of alcohol decreases your appetite and keeps your body from absorbing vital nutrients, you may be deficient in a number of vitamins and minerals. Your doctor may tell you to take supplements while you are regaining your health. Beneficial supplements may include vitamin B complex, vitamin C, selenium, magnesium, and zinc. A combination of amino acids -- carnitine, glutamine, and glutathione -- may help reduce cravings, blood sugar fluctuations, and stress related to alcohol use.
Thiamine (vitamin B1) -- Your doctor may prescribe a thiamine supplement during withdrawal. Heavy use of alcohol causes thiamine deficiency, which can lead to a serious brain disorder called Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
People who abuse alcohol are often deficient in vitamin A. Take supplements beyond the recommended daily allowance only under a doctor’s supervision. High doses of vitamin A can damage the liver and may causes alcoholic liver disease to develop more quickly in people who drink heavily.
Some members of the alcohol recovery community recommend a heavier, nutritionally oriented approach. This includes intravenous (IV) nutritional therapies along with targeted amino acid supplementation to modulate brain function. Some of these approaches are considered controversial by the mainstream alcoholism treatment community, so make sure you work with a reputable doctor and have every member of your recovery team up to date on the type of therapies you are using.
The use of herbs is a time-honored approach to strengthening the body and treating disease. Herbs, however, can trigger side effects and can interact with other herbs, supplements, or medications. For these reasons, you should take herbs with care, under the supervision of a health care provider. However, you should not use herbs alone to treat alcoholism; counseling and peer groups such as AA are also needed.
- Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) -- Milk thistle is often used to treat liver problems, and some studies looking at milk thistle to treat alcoholic liver disease have found significant improvements in liver function. People with the mildest form of alcohol related liver damage seem to improve the most. Milk thistle is less effective for those with severe liver disease such as cirrhosis, which is characterized by scarring and permanent, irreversible damage to the liver. However, there are no studies looking at whether milk thistle is useful for alcohol withdrawal. Some compounds in milk thistle may resemble estrogen in their composition, so people with hormone sensitive conditions should be careful. Talk with your doctor before taking milk thistle supplements.
- Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) -- Animal studies suggest that kudzu, used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat alcohol abuse, might help reduce cravings. Human studies are mixed. One study in humans failed to show any benefit, while another found that heavy drinkers who had taken kudzu supplements for 7 days drank significantly less beer when given the opportunity than heavy drinkers who had taken a placebo. Kudzu can interact with many medications, including blood-thinners, methotrexate, diabetes medications, and estrogens.
- Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) -- Dandelion is used traditionally for liver related problems, although there is evidence that it helps alcohol withdrawal symptoms. It is often combined with milk thistle. Dandelion can interact with many medications, including lithium.
Few studies have examined the effectiveness of specific homeopathic remedies. Professional homeopaths, however, may recommend a treatment for alcoholism based on their knowledge and clinical experience. Before prescribing a remedy, homeopaths take into account a person's constitutional type. In homeopathic terms, a person's constitution is his or her physical, emotional, and intellectual makeup. An experienced homeopath assesses all of these factors when determining the most appropriate remedy for a particular individual. Homeopathy alone should not be used to treat alcoholism, but can be a supportive therapy along with counseling and groups such as AA. The following are a few examples of remedies that an experienced homeopath might consider for symptoms related to alcohol abuse or withdrawal:
Arsenicum album -- for anxiety and compulsiveness, with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
Nux vomica -- for irritability and compulsiveness with nausea, vomiting, and constipation
Lachesis -- for cravings for alcohol cravings, headaches, and difficulty swallowing
Staphysagria -- for angry individuals who tend to suppress their emotions and may have been abused physically, sexually, or psychologically in the past
Cognitive behavioral therapy with a psychologist or psychiatrist is a very effective treatment approach for alcohol addiction. This type of therapy, which is geared toward changing your beliefs and thought process about drinking, can help you cope with stress and control your behavior. Talk to your doctor about finding a qualified cognitive behavioral therapist.
In some cases, acupuncture may be a useful supportive therapy for addiction. Some but not all studies of acupuncture for the treatment of alcohol abuse have shown that it can reduce cravings and symptoms of withdrawal. However, acupuncture alone should not be used to treat alcohol addiction, but in combination with counseling and groups such as AA.
Addolorato G, Leggio L, Hopf FW, Diana M, Bonci A. Novel therapeutic strategies for alcohol and drug addiction: focus on GABA, ion channels and transcranial magnetic stimulation.Neuropsychopharmacology.2011 Oct 26. [Epub ahead of print]
Ambrose, ML, Bowden SC, Whelan G. Thiamin treatment and working memory function of alcohol-dependent people: preliminary findings.Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001;25(1):112-116.
American Psychiatric Association.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Text Revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.
Assanangkornchai S, Srisurapanont M. The treatment of alcohol dependence.Curr Opin Psychiatry.2007 May;20(3):222-7. Review.
Carai MAM, Agabio R, Bombardelli E, et al. Potential use of medicinal plants in the treatment of alcoholism.Fitoterapia. 2000;71:538-542.
Cooney JL, Cooney NL, Pilkey DT, Kranzler HR, Oncken CA. Effects of nicotine deprivation on urges to drink and smoke in alcoholic smokers.Addiction. 2003;98(7):913-921.
Correale M, Laonigro I, Altomare E, Di Biase M. Alcohol-induced cardiac disease.G Ital Cardiol (Rome).2009;10(1):18-27.
Das UN. Essential Fatty acids - a review.Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2006 Dec;7(6):467-82. Review.
Ferri:Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2010, 1st ed.Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier, Inc. 2009.
Ferri M, Amato L, Davoli M. Alcoholics Anonymous and other 12-step programmes for alcohol dependence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jul 19;3:CD005032. Review.
Garland EL, Gaylord SA, Boettiger CA, Howard MO. Mindfulness training modifies cognitive, affective, and physiological mechanisms implicated in alcohol dependence: results of a randomized controlled pilot trial.J Psychoactive Drugs. 2010;42(2):177-92.
Heilig M, Goldman D, Berrettini W, O'Brien CP. Pharmacogenetic approaches to the treatment of alcohol addiction.Nat Rev Neurosci.2011 Oct 20;12(11):670-84.
Hillemacher T, Kahl KG, Heberlein A, Muschler MA, Eberlein C, Frieling H, Bleich S. Appetite- and volume-regulating neuropeptides: Role in treating alcohol dependence. [Review]. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2010;11(10):1097-106.
Kunz S, Schulz M, Lewitzky M, Driessen M, Rau H. Ear acupuncture for alcohol withdrawal in comparison with aromatherapy: a randomized-controlled trial.Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007 Mar;31(3):436-42.
Leone MA, Vigna-Taglianti F, Avanzi G, Brambilla R, Faggiano F. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) for treatment of alcohol withdrawal and prevention of relapses.Cochrane Database Syst Rev.2010 Feb 17;(2):CD006266.
Liu Q, Lawrence AJ, Liang JH. Traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of alcoholism: from ancient to modern.Am J Chin Med.2011;39(1):1-13.
Lukas SE, Penetar D, Berko J, Vicens L, Palmer C, Mallya G, Macklin EA, Lee DY. An extract of the Chinese herbal root kudzu reduces alcohol drinking by heavy drinkers in a naturalistic setting.Alcohol Clin Exp Res.2005 May;29(5):756-62.
Lyon JE, Khan RA, Gessert CE, Larson PM, Renier CM. Treating alcohol withdrawal with oral baclofen: A randominzed, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.J Hosp Med.2011 Oct;6(8):474-9.
Malik P, Gasser RW, Kemmler G, Moncayo R, Finkenstedt G, Kurz M, Fleischhacker WW. Low bone mineral density and impaired bone metabolism in young alcoholic patients without liver cirrhosis: a cross-sectional study.Alcohol Clin Exp Res.2009;33(2):375-81.
Martinotti G, Andreoli S, Reina D, Di Nicola M, Ortolani I, Tedeschi D, Fanella F, Pozzi G, Iannoni E, D'Iddio S, Prof LJ. Acetyl-l-Carnitine in the treatment of anhedonia, melancholic and negative symptoms in alcohol dependent subjects.Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35(4):953-8.
Oh SH, Soh JR, Cha YS. Germinated brown rice extract shows a nutraceutical effect in the recovery of chronic alcohol-related symptoms.J Med Food. 2003;6(2):115-121.
Otto KC. Acupuncture and substance abuse: a synopsis, with indications for further research.Am J Addict.2003;12(1):43-51.
Overstreet DH, Keung WM, Rezvani AH, Massi M, Lee DY. Herbal remedies for alcoholism: promises and possible pitfalls.Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003;27(2):177-185.
Pilowsky DJ, Keyes KM, Hasin DS. Adverse childhood events and lifetime alcohol dependence.Am J Public Health.2009;99(2):258-63.
Purohit V, Abdelmalek MF, Barve S, Benevenga NJ, Halsted CH, Kaplowitz N, et al. Role of S-adenosylmethionine, folate, and betaine in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease: summary of a symposium.Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;86(1):14-24. Review.
Rakel:Textbook of Family Medicine, 7th ed.Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier Inc. 2007.
Rezvani AH, Overstreet DH, Perfumi M, Massi M. Plant derivatives in the treatment of alcohol dependency.Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;75(3):593-606.
Roerecke M, Rehm J. Ischemic heart disease mortality and morbidity rates in former drinkers: a meta-analysis.Am J Epidemiol.2011 Feb 1;173(3):245-58.
Shebek J, Rindone JP. A pilot study exploring the effect of kudzu root on the drinking habits of patients with chronic alcoholism.J Alt Compl Med. 2000;6:45-48.
Singh AK, Jiang Y, Benlhabib E, Gupta S. Herbal mixtures consisting of puerarin and either polyenylphosphatidylcholine or curcumin provide comprehensive protection against alcohol-related disorders in P rats receiving free choice water and 15% ethanol in pure water.J Med Food. 2007 Sep;10(3):526-42.
Sinha R, Fox HC, Hong KI, Hansen J, Tuit K, Kreek MJ. Effects of adrenal sensitivity, stress- and cue-induced craving, and anxiety on subsequent alcohol relapse and treatment outcomes.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68(9):942-52. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.49.
Sukul NC, Ghosh S, Sinhababu SP, Sukul A. Strychnos nux-vomica extract and its ultra-high dilution reduce voluntary ethanol intake in rats.J Altern Complement Med. 2003;7(2):187-193.
Trumpler F, Oez S, Stahli P, Brenner HD, Juni P. Acupuncture for alcohol withdrawal: a randomized controlled trial.Alcohol. 2003;38(4):369-375.
Ventegodt S, Clausen B, Langhorn M, Kromann M, Andersen NJ, Merrick J. Quality of life as medicine III. A qualitative analysis of the effect of a five-day intervention with existential holistic group therapy or a quality of life course as a modern rite of passage.Scientific World J.2004;4:124-133.
Vieten C, Astin JA, Buscemi R, Galloway GP. Development of an acceptance-based coping intervention for alcohol dependence relapse prevention.Subst Abus. 2010;31(2):108-16.
Wedekind D, Herchenhein T, Kirchhainer J, Bandelow B, Falkai P, Engel K, Malchow B, Havemann-Reinecke U. Serotonergic function, substance craving, and psychopathology in detoxified alcohol-addicted males undergoing tryptophan depletion.J Psychiatr Res. 2010;44(16):1163-9.
Xu BJ, Zheng YN, Sung CK. Natural medicines for alcoholism treatment: a review.Drug Alcohol Rev. 2005 Nov;24(6):525-36. Review.