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Also listed as: Hair loss

Signs and Symptoms
What Causes It?
What to Expect at Your Provider's Office
Treatment Options
Special Considerations
Supporting Research

Alopecia is the loss of hair. Hair loss can be caused by different reasons, including damage to the hair shaft or follicles. Fungal infections can also cause hair loss.

There are two main types of alopecia. When the body's immune system mistakenly attacks hair follicles and causes hair to fall out, it's called alopecia areata. Hair can fall out in patches all over the body. Androgenetic alopecia, on the other hand, is a kind of hair loss that's inherited. Hair on the head thins and falls out. In men, this is called male pattern hair loss; in women, it is called female diffuse hair loss.

About 60% of people with androgenetic alopecia are men. Hair loss caused by androgenetic alopecia is permanent.

Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms of alopecia may include:

  • Male pattern hair loss: Thinning or complete loss of hair at the hairline and top of the head.
  • Female diffuse hair loss: A gradual thinning of hair, especially on the top of the head. The hairline usually stays the same.
  • Alopecia areata: Broken hairs, or hairs easily removed; one or more round or oval bald patches.

What Causes It?

Causes may include:

  • Aging
  • Genetics
  • Illness
  • Some medications, such as chemotherapy
  • Malnutrition
  • Autoimmune disorder, in the case of alopecia areata

What to Expect at Your Provider's Office

Usually your doctor can diagnose androgenetic alopecia by examining you and taking a medical history. If your health care provider suspects alopecia areata, the health care provider may order a fluorescent antinuclear antibody (FNA) test, which can help determine if there is a problem with your immune system.

Treatment Options

Treatment depends on the type of alopecia you have. With many temporary forms of alopecia, hair will grow back without treatment. For people with alopecia areata, medications may help reduce hair loss. Some men with male pattern hair loss may consider surgery, such as hair transplants, scalp reduction, and strip or flap grafts.

Drug Therapies

For male pattern hair loss:

  • Minoxidil (Rogaine)
  • Finasteride (Propecia)

In the case of both medications, if you stop using the drug hair will fall out again. If you use these medications, your health care provider should monitor you for side effects.

For female diffuse hair loss:

  • Minoxidil (Rogaine). Rogaine must be used indefinitely to keep regrown hair.

For alopecia areata:

  • Corticosteroids -- usually given by injection in the scalp each month. In severe cases, corticosteroids may be taken by mouth.

Surgical and Other Procedures

Surgical options include hair transplants, scalp reduction, and strip or flap grafts.

Complementary and Alternative Therapies

These therapies have only slight success in treating male pattern baldness.

Nutrition and Supplements

For alopecia areata

  • Biotin and trace minerals, such as those found in blue-green algae, may promote hair growth. Biotin and zinc aspartate have been used to treat alopecia areata in children. However, there is no evidence that biotin will help if you are already getting enough biotin in your diet. Biotin is found in chard, romaine lettuce, carrots, and tomatoes.

For androgenetic alopecia

  • Beta-sitosterol and saw palmetto seem to help hair growth in men with male pattern hair loss. In one study, men who took this combination had greater hair growth than men who took placebo. If you take other medications -- particularly hormone therapy -- talk to your doctor before taking this combination. Saw palmetto may increase the risk of bleeding, especially if you take blood-thinners such as clopidogrel (Plavix), warfarin (Coumadin), or aspirin.


The use of herbs is a time-honored approach to strengthening the body and treating disease. Herbs, however, can trigger side effects and can interact with other herbs, supplements, or medications. For these reasons, you should take herbs should only under the supervision of a health care provider.

For androgenetic alopecia

  • Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) and beta-sitosterol (see Nutrition and Supplements).

For alopecia areata

  • Aromatherapy -- One study found that massaging the scalp with a combination of several essential oils improved hair growth. The oils used were lavender, rosemary, thyme, and cedarwood. Because essential oils can be toxic, they are mixed with another oil -- in this case, jojoba or grapeseed oil -- before putting it on skin. Add 3 - 6 drops of essential oil to 1 tbs. of jojoba or grapeseed oil. Massage into scalp daily.


Therapeutic massage increases circulation (helping bring more blood to the scalp) and reduces stress. Scalp massage using essential oils of rosemary, lavender, thyme, and cedarwood may help increase circulation (see Herbs).

Special Considerations

Some men using finasteride (Propecia) may have a decreased sex drive or trouble getting an erection.

If you are pregnant, wait to treat alopecia until after your baby is born.

Supporting Research

Abdullah F, Rashid RM. Alopecia: botanical approaches in review. J Drugs Dermatol. 2010 May;9(5):537-41. Review.

Delamere FM, Sladden MM, Dobbins HM, Leonardi-Bee J. Interventions for alopecia areata. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Apr 16;(2):CD004413. Review.

Fischer TW, Burmeister G, Schmidt HW, Elsner P. Melatonin increases anagen hair rate in women with androgenetic alopecia or diffuse alopecia: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 2004;150:341-5.

Foitzik K, Hoting E, Förster T, Pertile P, Paus R. L-carnitine-L-tartrate promotes human hair growth in vitro. Exp Dermatol. 2007 Nov;16(11):936-45.

Hajheydari Z, Jamshidi M, Akbari J, Mohammadpour R. Combination of topical garlic gel and betamethasone valerate cream in the treatment of localized alopecia areata: a double-blind randomized controlled study. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007 Jan-Feb;73(1):29-32.

Harada N, Okajima K, Arai M, Kurihara H, Nakagata N. Administration of capsaicin and isoflavone promotes hair growth by increasing insulin-like growth factor-I production in mice and in humans with alopecia. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2007 Oct;17(5):408-15.

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). Questions and Answers about Alopecia Areata. Pub. No. 03-5143

Paus R, Arck P. Neuroendocrine perspectives in alopecia areata: does stress play a role? J Invest Dermatol. 2009 Jun;129(6):1324-6.

Prager N, Bicketee K, French N, Marcovici G. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of botanically derived inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. J Altern Complent Med. 2002 Apr;8(2):143-52.

Sinclair R, Patel M, Dawson TL Jr, Yazdabadi A, Yip L, Perez A, Rufaut NW. Hair loss in women: medical and cosmetic approaches to increase scalp hair fullness. Br J Dermatol. 2011 Dec;165 Suppl 3:12-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2011.10630.x.

van den Biggelaar FJ, Smolders J, Jansen JF. Complementary and alternative medicine in alopecia areata. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2010;11(1):11-20. doi: 10.2165/11530040-000000000-00000. Review.

Review Date: 12/31/2011
Reviewed By: Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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