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    Glanzmann’s disease

    Thrombasthenia

    Glanzmann’s disease is a rare disorder of blood platelets, which results in easy bruising and nosebleeds.

    Causes

    Glanzmann's disease is caused by the lack of a protein that is normally on the surface of platelets, which is needed for them to clump together (aggregate) normally.

    The condition is congenital, which means it is present from birth. There are several genetic abnormalities that can cause the condition.

    Symptoms

    • Bleeding during and after surgery
    • Bleeding gums
    • Easy bruising
    • Heavy menstrual bleeding
    • Nosebleeds (epistaxis)
    • Prolonged bleeding with minor injuries

    Exams and Tests

    The following tests may be used to diagnose this condition:

    • Complete blood count (CBC)
    • Bleeding time
    • Platelet aggregation tests
    • Prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT)

    Other tests may be needed, including the testing of relatives.

    Treatment

    There is no specific treatment for this disorder. Platelet transfusions may be given to patients who are having severe bleeding.

    Outlook (Prognosis)

    Glanzmann's thrombasthenia is a life-long condition for which there is no cure. Patients should take precautions to avoid bleeding.

    Anyone with a bleeding disorder should avoid taking aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen and naproxen. These drugs can prolong bleeding times and prevent platelets from activating and aggregating.

    Possible Complications

    • Severe bleeding
    • Iron deficiency anemia in menstruating women

    When to Contact a Medical Professional

    Call your health care provider if:

    • You have bleeding or bruising of an unknown cause
    • Bleeding does not stop after usual treatments

    Prevention

    A blood test can detect the gene responsible for the condition.

    Genetic counseling may be helpful to couples with a family history of platelet disorders who are planning to have children in the future.

    References

    Bennett JS. Hereditary disorders of platelet function. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr., Shattil SJ, et al, eds. Hoffman Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2008:chap 141.

    McMillan R. Hemorrhagic disorders: Abnormalities of platelet and vascular function. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 179.

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                  Review Date: 2/28/2011

                  Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; and Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

                  The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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