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    Lead - nutritional considerations

    Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations

    Nutritional considerations to reduce the risk of lead poisoning.

    Function

    Lead is a natural element with thousands of uses. Because it is widespread (and often hidden) lead can easily contaminate food and water where it is undetectable to the eye or taste.

    Food Sources

    Lead can be found in canned goods if there is lead solder in the cans. Lead may also be found in other some containers. See: Cooking utensils and nutrition

    Old paint poses the greatest danger for lead poisoning, especially in young children. Tap water from lead pipes or pipes with lead solder is also a source of hidden lead.

    Side Effects

    High doses of lead can damage the nervous system, kidneys, and blood system and can even be lethal. Continuous low-level exposure causes lead to accumulate in the body and cause damage. It is particularly dangerous for babies, before and after birth, and for small children, because their bodies and brains are growing rapidly.

    Many federal agencies study and monitor lead exposure. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) monitors lead in food, beverages, food containers, and tableware. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors lead levels in drinking water.

    Recommendations

    • Run tap water for a minute before drinking or cooking with it.
    • If your water has been tested high in lead, consider installing an effective filtering device or switch to bottled water for drinking and cooking.
    • Avoid canned goods from foreign countries until the ban on lead soldered cans goes into effect.
    • If imported wine containers have a lead foil wrapper, wipe the rim and neck of the bottle with a towel moistened with lemon juice, vinegar, or wine before using.
    • Don't store wine, spirits, or vinegar-based salad dressings in lead crystal decanters for long periods of time, as lead can leach out into the liquid.

    Other important recommendations:

    • Paint over old leaded paint if in good condition, or remove the old paint and repaint with lead-free paint. If it needs to be sanded or removed because it is chipping or pealing, get advice on safe removal from the Housing and Urban Development (HUD) hotline (800-RID-LEAD) or the National Lead Information Center (800-LEAD-FYI)
    • Keep your home as dust free as possible and everyone should wash their hands before eating.
    • Dispose of old painted toys if you do not know whether they have lead-free paint.

    References

    Markowitz M. Lead poisoning. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 709.

    Velez LI, Delaney KA. Heavy metals. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 6th ed. St Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2006:chap 155.

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              Tests for Lead - nutritional considerations

                Review Date: 2/1/2013

                Reviewed By: Eric Perez, MD, St. Luke's / Roosevelt Hospital Center, NY, NY, and Pegasus Emergency Group (Meadowlands and Hunterdon Medical Centers), NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.

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