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    Hematocrit is a blood test that measures the percentage of the volume of whole blood that is made up of red blood cells. This measurement depends on the number of red blood cells and the size of red blood cells.

    The hematocrit is almost always ordered as part of a complete blood count.

    How the Test is Performed

    A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

    How to Prepare for the Test

    No special preparation is necessary for this test.

    How the Test Will Feel

    When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain, while others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.

    Why the Test is Performed

    Your doctor may order this test if you have signs of:

    • Anemia
    • Diet deficiency
    • Leukemia
    • Other medical condition

    Normal Results

    Normal results vary, but in general are as follows:

    • Male: 40.7 - 50.3%
    • Female: 36.1 - 44.3%

    Normal value ranges vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.

    The examples above show the common measurements for results for these tests. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different samples.

    What Abnormal Results Mean

    Low hematocrit may be due to:

    • Anemia
    • Bleeding
    • Destruction of red blood cells
    • Leukemia
    • Malnutrition
    • Nutritional deficiencies of iron, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6
    • Overhydration

    High hematocrit may be due to:

    • Congenital heart disease
    • Cor pulmonale
    • Dehydration
    • Erythrocytosis
    • Low blood oxygen levels (hypoxia)
    • Pulmonary fibrosis
    • Polycythemia vera


    Veins and arteries vary in size from one patient to another and from one side of the body to the other. Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than from others.

    Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight but may include:

    • Excessive bleeding
    • Fainting or feeling light-headed
    • Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
    • Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)


    Bunn HF. Approach to the anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 161.


    • Formed elements of blood


      • Formed elements of blood


      A Closer Look

        Tests for Hematocrit

        Review Date: 2/8/2012

        Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Palm Beach Cancer Institute, West Palm Beach, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington; David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.

        The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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