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    Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    V/Q scan; Ventilation/perfusion scan; Lung ventilation/perfusion scan

    A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan involves two nuclear scan tests to measure breathing (ventilation) and circulation (perfusion) in all areas of the lungs.

    How the Test is Performed

    A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan is actually two tests.They may be done separately or together.

    During the perfusion scan, a health care provider injects radioactive albumin into your vein. You are placed on a movable table that is under the arm of a scanner. The machine scans your lungs as blood flows through them to find the location of the radioactive particles.

    During the ventilation scan, you breathe in radioactive gas through a mask while you are sitting or lying on a table under the scanner arm.

    How to Prepare for the Test

    You do not need to stop eating (fast), eat a special diet, or take any medications before the test.

    A chest x-ray is usually done before or after a ventilation and perfusion scan.

    You will sign a consent form and wear a hospital gown or comfortable clothing that does not have metal fasteners.

    How the Test Will Feel

    The table may feel hard or cold. You may feel a sharp prick while the material is injected into the vein for the perfusion part of the scan.

    The mask used during the ventilation scan may make you feel nervous about being in a small space (claustrophobia). You must lie still during the scan.

    The radioisotope injection usually does not cause discomfort.

    Why the Test is Performed

    The ventilation scan is used to see how well air and blood flow moves through the lungs. The perfusion scan measures the blood supply through the lungs.

    A ventilation and perfusion scan is most often done to detect a pulmonary embolus (blood clot in the lungs). It is also used to:

    • Detect abnormal circulation (shunts) in the blood vessels of the lungs (pulmonary vessels)
    • Test lung function in people with advanced pulmonary disease, such as COPD

    Normal Results

    The health care provider should take a ventilation and perfusion scan and then evaluate it with a chest x-ray. All parts of both lungs should take up the radioisotope evenly.

    What Abnormal Results Mean

    If the lungs take up lower than normal amounts of radioisotope during a ventilation or perfusion scan, it may be due to:

    • Airway obstruction
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    • Pneumonia
    • Narrowing of the pulmonary artery
    • Pneumonitis
    • Pulmonary embolus
    • Reduced breathing and ventilation ability

    Risks

    Risks are about the same as for x-rays (radiation) and needle pricks.

    No radiation is released from the scanner. Instead, it detects radiation and converts it into an image.

    There is a small exposure to radiation from the radioisotope. The radioisotopes used during scans are short-lived. All of the radiation leaves the body in a few days. However, as with any radiation exposure, caution is advised for pregnant or breast-feeding women.

    There is a slight risk for infection or bleeding at the site where the needle is inserted. The risk with perfusion scan is the same as with inserting an intravenous needle for any other purpose.

    In rare cases, a person may develop an allergy to the radioisotope. This may include a serious anaphylactic reaction.

    Considerations

    A pulmonary ventilation and perfusion scan may be a lower-risk alternative to pulmonary angiography for evaluating disorders of the lung blood supply.

    This test may not provide an definite diagnosis, especially in people with lung disease. Other tests may be needed to confirm or rule out the findings of a pulmonary ventilation and perfusion scan.

    This test has largely been replaced by CT pulmonary angiography. However, patients with kidney problems or an allergy to contrast dye can more safely have this test.

    References

    Morris TA, Fedullo PF. Pulmonary thromboembolism. In: Mason RJ, Broaddus CV, Martin TR, et al, eds. Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 51.

    Weitz JI. Pulmonary embolism. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 98.

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            Tests for Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

            Review Date: 8/30/2012

            Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Denis Hadjiliadis, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.

            The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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