Pneumomediastinum is air in the mediastinum. The mediastinum is the space in the middle of the chest, between the lungs and around the heart.
Pneumomediastinum is uncommon. The condition can be caused by injury or disease. Most often, it occurs when air leaks from any part of the lung or airways into the mediastinum.
Increased pressure in the lungs or airways may be caused by:
- Too much coughing
- Repeated bearing down to increase abdominal pressure (such as pushing during childbirth or a bowel movement)
It may also happen after:
- An infection in the neck or center of the chest
- Rapid rises in altitude, or scuba diving
- Tearing of the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth and stomach)
- Tearing of the trachea (windpipe)
- Use of a breathing machine
- Use of inhaled recreational drugs, such as crack cocaine
Pneumomediastinum also can occur with collapsed lung ( pneumothorax ) or other diseases.
A collapsed lung occurs when air escapes from the lung. The air then fills the space outside of the lung, between the lung and chest wall. This bui...
There may be no symptoms. The condition usually causes chest pain behind the breastbone, which may spread to the neck or arms. The pain may be worse when you take a breath or swallow.
Exams and Tests
During a physical examination, the doctor may feel small bubbles of air under the skin of the chest, arms, or neck.
A chest x-ray is an x-ray of the chest, lungs, heart, large arteries, ribs, and diaphragm.
CT scan of the chest
A chest CT (computed tomography) scan is an imaging method that uses x-rays to create cross-sectional pictures of the chest and upper abdomen....
Often, no treatment is needed because the body will gradually absorb the air. Breathing high concentrations of oxygen may speed this process.
The doctor may put in a chest tube if you also have a collapsed lung. You may also need treatment for the cause of the problem. A hole in the trachea or esophagus needs to be repaired with surgery.
A chest tube is a hollow, flexible tube placed into the chest. It acts as a drain. Chest tubes drain blood, fluid, or air from around your lungs, he...
The outlook depends on the disease or events that caused the pneumomediastinum.
The air may build up and enter the space around the lungs (pleural space), causing the lung to collapse.
In rare cases, air may enter the area between the heart and the thin sac that surrounds the heart. This condition is called a pneumopericardium.
In other rare cases, so much air builds up in the middle of the chest that it pushes on the heart and the great blood vessels, so they cannot work properly.
All of these complications require urgent attention because they can be life threatening.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if you have severe chest pain or difficulty breathing.
Cheng GS, Varghese TK, Park DR. Pneumomediastinum and mediastinitis. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 84.
Mccool FD. Diseases of the diaphragm, chest wall, pleura, and mediastinum. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 99.
Respiratory system - illustration
Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.
Review Date: 8/21/2016
Reviewed By: Denis Hadjiliadis, MD, MHS, Paul F. Harron, Jr. Associate Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.