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Respiratory alkalosis

Alkalosis - respiratory

 

Respiratory alkalosis is a condition marked by a low level of carbon dioxide in the blood due to breathing excessively.

Causes

 

Common causes include:

  • Anxiety or panic
  • Fever
  • Overbreathing (hyperventilation)
  • Pregnancy (this is normal)
  • Pain

Any lung disease that leads to shortness of breath can also cause respiratory alkalosis (such as pulmonary embolism and asthma).

 

Symptoms

 

The symptoms may include:

  • Dizziness
  • Lightheadedness
  • Numbness of the hands and feet

 

Exams and Tests

 

Your health care provider will perform a physical exam. Tests that may be done include:

  • Arterial blood gas, which measures oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the blood
  • Basic metabolic panel
  • Chest x-ray
  • Pulmonary function tests to measure breathing and how well the lungs are functioning

 

Treatment

 

Treatment is aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing into a paper bag -- or using a mask that causes you to re-breathe carbon dioxide -- sometimes helps reduce symptoms when anxiety is the main cause of the condition.

 

Outlook (Prognosis)

 

Outlook depends on the condition that is causing the respiratory alkalosis.

 

Possible Complications

 

Seizures may occur if the alkalosis is extremely severe. This is very rare.

 

When to Contact a Medical Professional

 

Call your provider if you have any symptoms of lung disease, such as long-term (chronic) cough or shortness of breath.

 

 

References

Effros RM, Swenson ER. Acid-base balance. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 7.

Seifter JL. Acid-base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 118.

 
  • Respiratory system

    Respiratory system - illustration

    Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.

    Respiratory system

    illustration

    • Respiratory system

      Respiratory system - illustration

      Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.

      Respiratory system

      illustration

    A Closer Look

     

      Talking to your MD

       

        Self Care

         

          Tests for Respiratory alkalosis

           

             

            Review Date: 8/21/2016

            Reviewed By: Denis Hadjiliadis, MD, MHS, Paul F. Harron, Jr. Associate Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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