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Malignant mesothelioma

Mesothelioma - malignant; Malignant pleura mesothelioma (MPM)

 

Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon cancerous tumor. It mainly affects the lining of the lung and chest cavity (pleura) or lining of the abdomen (peritoneum). It is due to long-term asbestos exposure.

Causes

 

Long-term exposure to asbestos is the biggest risk factor. Asbestos is a fire-resistant material. It was once commonly found in insulation, ceiling and roofing vinyls, cement, and car brakes. Even though many asbestos workers smoked, experts do not believe smoking itself is a cause of this condition.

Men are affected more often than women. The average age at diagnosis is 60 years. Most people seem to develop the condition about 30 years after being in contact with the asbestos.

 

Symptoms

 

Symptoms may not appear until 20 to 40 years or longer after exposure to asbestos, and may include:

  • Abdominal bloating
  • Abdominal pain
  • Chest pain, especially when taking a deep breath
  • Cough
  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weight loss
  • Fever and sweating

 

Exams and Tests

 

The health care provider will do an examination and ask the person about their symptoms and medical history. Tests that may be done include:

  • Chest x-ray
  • Chest CT scan
  • Cytology of pleural fluid
  • Open lung biopsy
  • Pleural biopsy

Mesothelioma is often hard to diagnose. Under the microscope, it can be hard to tell this disease apart from similar conditions and tumors.

 

Treatment

 

Malignant mesothelioma is a difficult cancer to treat.

There is usually no cure, unless the disease is found very early and the tumor can be completely removed with surgery. Most of the time, when the disease is diagnosed, it is too advanced for surgery. Chemotherapy or radiation may be used to reduce symptoms. Combining certain chemotherapy drugs may help decrease symptoms, but it will not cure the cancer.

Untreated, most people survive about 9 months.

Participating in a clinical trial (test of new treatments), may give the person more treatment options.

Pain relief, oxygen, and other supportive treatments may also help relieve symptoms.

 

Support Groups

 

You can ease the stress of illness by joining a support group where members share common experiences and problems.

 

Outlook (Prognosis)

 

The average survival time varies from 4 to 18 months. Outlook depends on:

  • The stage of the tumor
  • The person's age and general health
  • Whether surgery is an option
  • The person's response to treatment

 

Possible Complications

 

Complications of malignant mesothelioma may include:

  • Side effects of chemotherapy or radiation
  • Continued spread of cancer to other organs

 

When to Contact a Medical Professional

 

Call for an appointment with your provider if you have symptoms of malignant mesothelioma.

 

Prevention

 

Avoid exposure to asbestos.

 

 

References

Broaddus VC, Robinson BWS. Pleural tumors. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 82.

National Cancer Institute. PDQ malignant mesothelioma treatment. Updated August 5, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/mesothelioma/hp/mesothelioma-treatment-pdq#section/29. Accessed July 8, 2016.

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN guidelines): malignant pleural mesothelioma. Updated June 22, 2016. Version 3. 2016. www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/mpm.pdf. Accessed July 8, 2016.

 
  • Respiratory system

    Respiratory system - illustration

    Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.

    Respiratory system

    illustration

    • Respiratory system

      Respiratory system - illustration

      Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.

      Respiratory system

      illustration

    A Closer Look

     

      Tests for Malignant mesothelioma

       

         

        Review Date: 5/20/2016

        Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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