Locations Main Campus: Chesterfield, MO 63017   |   Locations
314-434-1500 314-434-1500   |   Contact Us

Multimedia Encyclopedia


 
E-mail Form
Email Results

 
 
Print-Friendly
Bookmarks
bookmarks-menu

Primary biliary cirrhosis

PBC

 

The bile ducts are tubes that move bile from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a substance that helps with digestion. All of the bile ducts together are called the biliary tract.

When the bile ducts become swollen or inflamed, this blocks the flow of bile. The buildup of bile damages the liver cells and leads to scarring of the liver called cirrhosis. This is called biliary cirrhosis.

Causes

 

The cause of inflamed bile ducts in the liver is not known. However, primary biliary cirrhosis is an autoimmune disorder. That means your body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. The disease may be linked to autoimmune disorders such as:

  • Celiac disease
  • Raynaud phenomenon
  • Sicca syndrome (dry eyes or mouth)
  • Thyroid disease

The disease more commonly affects middle-aged women.

 

Symptoms

 

More than one half of people have no symptoms at the time of diagnosis. Symptoms most often begin slowly. Early symptoms may include:

  • Nausea and belly pain
  • Fatigue and loss of energy
  • Fatty deposits under the skin
  • Fatty stools
  • Itching
  • Poor appetite and weight loss

As liver function worsens, symptoms may include:

  • Fluid buildup in the legs (edema) and in the abdomen (ascites)
  • Yellow color in the skin, mucous membranes, or eyes (jaundice)
  • Redness on the palms of the hands
  • In men, impotence, shrinking of the testicles, and breast swelling
  • Easy bruising and abnormal bleeding, most often from swollen veins in the digestive tract
  • Confusion or problems thinking
  • Pale or clay-colored stools

 

Exams and Tests

 

The health care provider will do a physical exam.

The following tests can check to see if your liver is working properly:

  • Albumin blood test
  • Liver function tests (serum alkaline phosphatase is most important)
  • Prothrombin time (PT)
  • Cholesterol and lipoprotein blood tests

Other tests that can help diagnose this disease are:

  • Elevated immunoglobulin M level in the blood
  • Liver biopsy
  • Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (results are positive in about 95% of cases)

 

Treatment

 

The goal of treatment is to ease symptoms and prevent complications.

Cholestyramine (or colestipol) may reduce the itching. Ursodeoxycholic acid may improve removal of bile from the bloodstream. This may improve survival in some people.

Vitamin replacement therapy restores vitamins A, K, E and D, which are lost in fatty stools. A calcium supplement or other bone medicines may be added to prevent or treat weak or soft bones.

Long-term monitoring and treatment of liver failure is needed.

Liver transplant may be successful if it is done before liver failure occurs.

 

Outlook (Prognosis)

 

The outcome can vary. If the condition is not treated, most people will die without a liver transplant. About one quarter of people who have had the disease for 10 years will have liver failure. Doctors can now use a statistical model to predict the best time to do the transplant. Other diseases, such as hypothyroidism and anemia, can also develop.

 

Possible Complications

 

Progressive cirrhosis can lead to liver failure. Complications can include:

  • Bleeding
  • Damage to the brain (encephalopathy)
  • Fluid and electrolyte imbalance
  • Kidney failure
  • Malabsorption
  • Malnutrition
  • Soft or weak bones (osteomalacia or osteoporosis)
  • Ascites (fluid buildup in the abdominal cavity)

 

When to Contact a Medical Professional

 

Call your provider if you have:

  • Abdominal swelling
  • Blood in the stools
  • Confusion
  • Jaundice
  • Itching of the skin that does not go away and is not related to other causes
  • Vomiting blood

 

 

References

Anstee QM, Jones DEJ. Liver and biliary tract disease. In: Walker BR, Colledge NR, Ralston SH, Perman ID, eds. Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2012:chap 23.

Eaton JE, Lindor KD. Primary biliary chirrhosis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 91.

Fogel EL, Sherman S. Diseases of the gallbladder and liver. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 155.

 
  • Digestive system

    Digestive system - illustration

    The esophagus, stomach, large and small intestine, aided by the liver, gallbladder and pancreas convert the nutritive components of food into energy and break down the non-nutritive components into waste to be excreted.

    Digestive system

    illustration

  • Bile pathway

    Bile pathway - illustration

    The biliary system is comprised of the organs and duct system that create, transport, store and release bile into the duodenum for digestion. Includes the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts (named the cystic, hepatic, common, and pancreatic duct).

    Bile pathway

    illustration

    • Digestive system

      Digestive system - illustration

      The esophagus, stomach, large and small intestine, aided by the liver, gallbladder and pancreas convert the nutritive components of food into energy and break down the non-nutritive components into waste to be excreted.

      Digestive system

      illustration

    • Bile pathway

      Bile pathway - illustration

      The biliary system is comprised of the organs and duct system that create, transport, store and release bile into the duodenum for digestion. Includes the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts (named the cystic, hepatic, common, and pancreatic duct).

      Bile pathway

      illustration

    A Closer Look

     

    Self Care

     

      Tests for Primary biliary cirrhosis

       

       

      Review Date: 5/11/2016

      Reviewed By: Subodh K. Lal, MD, gastroenterologist with Gastrointestinal Specialists of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

      The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
      adam.com

       
       
       

       

       

      A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.



      Content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.