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Esophageal spasm

Diffuse esophageal spasm; Spasm of the esophagus; Distal esophageal spasm

 

Esophageal spasms are abnormal contractions of the muscles in the esophagus, the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. These spasms do not move food effectively to the stomach.

Causes

 

The cause of esophageal spasm is unknown. Very hot or very cold foods may trigger spasms in some people.

 

Symptoms

 

Symptoms may include:

  • Problems swallowing or pain with swallowing
  • Pain in the chest or upper abdomen

It can be hard to tell a spasm from angina pectoris, a symptom of heart disease. The pain may spread to the neck, jaw, arms, or back

 

Exams and Tests

 

Tests you may need to look for the condition include:

  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)
  • Esophageal manometry
  • Esophagogram (barium swallow x-ray)

 

Treatment

 

Nitroglycerin given under the tongue (sublingual) may help a sudden episode of esophageal spasm. Long-acting nitroglycerin and calcium channel blockers are also used for the problem.

Long-term (chronic) cases are sometimes treated with low-dose antidepressants such as trazodone or nortriptyline to reduce symptoms.

Rarely, severe cases may need dilation (widening) of the esophagus or surgery to control symptoms.

 

Outlook (Prognosis)

 

An esophageal spasm may come and go (intermittent) or last for a long time (chronic). Medicine can help relieve symptoms.

 

Possible Complications

 

The condition may not respond to treatment.

 

When to Contact a Medical Professional

 

Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of esophageal spasm that don't go away. The symptoms may actually be due to heart problems. Your provider can help decide if you need heart tests.

 

Prevention

 

Avoid very hot or very cold foods if you get esophageal spasms.

 

 

References

Falk GW, Katzka DA. Diseases of the esophagus. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 138.

Pandolfino JE, Kahrilas PJ. Esophageal neuromuscular function and motility disorders. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 43.

 
  • Digestive system

    Digestive system - illustration

    The esophagus, stomach, large and small intestine, aided by the liver, gallbladder and pancreas convert the nutritive components of food into energy and break down the non-nutritive components into waste to be excreted.

    Digestive system

    illustration

  • Throat anatomy

    Throat anatomy - illustration

    Structures of the throat include the esophagus, trachea, epiglottis and tonsils.

    Throat anatomy

    illustration

  • Esophagus

    Esophagus - illustration

    The esophagus connects the nose and mouth with the stomach. The epiglottis folds over the trachea when a swallow occurs, to prevent the swallowed substance from being inhaled into the lungs. When a person is unable to swallow because of illness or coma, a tube may be inserted either through the mouth or nose, past the epiglottis, into the esophagus and into the stomach. Nutrients will be passed through the tube directly into the stomach.

    Esophagus

    illustration

    • Digestive system

      Digestive system - illustration

      The esophagus, stomach, large and small intestine, aided by the liver, gallbladder and pancreas convert the nutritive components of food into energy and break down the non-nutritive components into waste to be excreted.

      Digestive system

      illustration

    • Throat anatomy

      Throat anatomy - illustration

      Structures of the throat include the esophagus, trachea, epiglottis and tonsils.

      Throat anatomy

      illustration

    • Esophagus

      Esophagus - illustration

      The esophagus connects the nose and mouth with the stomach. The epiglottis folds over the trachea when a swallow occurs, to prevent the swallowed substance from being inhaled into the lungs. When a person is unable to swallow because of illness or coma, a tube may be inserted either through the mouth or nose, past the epiglottis, into the esophagus and into the stomach. Nutrients will be passed through the tube directly into the stomach.

      Esophagus

      illustration

    A Closer Look

     

      Self Care

       

        Tests for Esophageal spasm

         

         

        Review Date: 12/1/2016

        Reviewed By: Subodh K. Lal, MD, gastroenterologist with Gastrointestinal Specialists of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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