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    Type 1 Diabetes

    Insulin-dependent diabetes; Juvenile onset diabetes; Diabetes - type 1

    Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which thereisahigh level of sugar (glucose) in the blood.


    Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults.

    Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells. The pancreas is behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. There, it is stored and later used for energy. In type 1 diabetes, beta cells produce little or no insulin.

    Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells. The body is unable to use this glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 1 diabetes.

    The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Most likely it is an autoimmune disorder.This is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. With type 1 diabetes, an infection or another trigger causes the body to mistakenly attack the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes can be passed down through families.


    High Blood Sugar

    These symptoms may be the first signs of type 1 diabetes, or they may occur when blood sugar is high:

    • Being very thirsty
    • Feeling hungry
    • Feeling tired all the time
    • Having blurry eyesight
    • Feeling numbnessor feeling tingling in your feet
    • Losing weight without trying
    • Urinating more often

    For other people, these serious warning symptoms may be the first signs of type 1 diabetes, or they may happen when blood sugar is very high (diabetic ketoacidosis):

    • Deep, rapid breathing
    • Dry skin and mouth
    • Flushed face
    • Fruity breath odor
    • Nausea or vomiting, inability to keep down fluids
    • Stomach pain

    Low Blood Sugar

    Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can develop quickly in people with diabetes who are taking insulin. Symptoms usually appear when blood sugar level falls below 70 mg/dL. Watch for:

    • Headache
    • Hunger
    • Nervousness
    • Rapid heartbeat (palpitations)
    • Shaking
    • Sweating
    • Weakness

    Exams and Tests

    Diabetes is diagnosed with the following blood tests:

    • Fasting blood glucose level -- diabetes is diagnosed if it is higher than 126 mg/dL two times
    • Random (nonfasting) blood glucose level -- you may have diabetes if it is higher than 200 mg/dL, and you have symptoms such as increased thirst, urination, and fatigue (this must be confirmed with a fasting test)
    • Oral glucose tolerance test -- diabetes is diagnosed if the glucose level is higher than 200 mg/dL 2 hours after drinking a special sugar drink
    • Hemoglobin A1C test -- 6.5% or higher

    Ketone testing is also sometimes used. The ketone test is done using a urine sample or blood sample. Ketone testing may be done:

    • When the blood sugar is higher than 240 mg/dL
    • During an illness such as pneumonia, heart attack, or stroke
    • When nausea or vomiting occur
    • During pregnancy

    The following tests or exams will help you and your doctor monitor your diabetes and prevent problems caused by diabetes:

    • Check the skin and bones on your feet and legs.
    • Check to see if your feet are getting numb.
    • Have your blood pressure checked at least every year (blood pressure goal should be 140/80 mm/Hg or lower).
    • Have yourA1C test (Hemoglobin A1C) done every 6 months if your diabetes is well controlled; otherwise, every 3 months.
    • Have your cholesterol and triglyceride levels checked yearly (aim for LDL cholesterol levels below 70-100 mg/dL).
    • Get yearly tests to make sure your kidneys are working well (microalbuminuria and serum creatinine).
    • Visit your eye doctor at least once a year, or more often if you have signs of diabetic eye disease.
    • See the dentist every 6 months for a thorough dental cleaning and exam. Make sure your dentist and hygienist know that you have diabetes.


    Because type 1 diabetes can start quickly and the symptoms can be severe, people who have just been diagnosed may need to stay in the hospital.

    If you have just been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, youmay need tohave a checkup each week until you have good control over your blood sugar. Your health care provider will review the results of your home blood sugar monitoring and urine testing. Your provider will also look at your diary of meals, snacks, and insulin injections. It may take a few weeks to match the insulin doses to your meal and activity schedule.

    As the disease gets more stable, you will have fewer follow-up visits. Visiting your health care provider is very important so you can monitor any long-term problems from diabetes.

    You are the most important person in managing your diabetes. You should know the basic steps to diabetes management:

    • How to recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
    • How to recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia)
    • Diabetes meal planning
    • How to give insulin
    • How to check blood glucose and urine ketones
    • How to adjust insulin and food when you exercise
    • How to handle sick days
    • Where to buy diabetes supplies and how to store them


    Insulin lowers blood sugar by allowing it to leave the bloodstream and enter cells. Everyone with type 1 diabetes must take insulin every day.

    Insulin must be injected under the skin using a syringe, insulin pen or pump. It cannot be taken by mouth because the acid in the stomach destroys insulin.

    Insulin types differ in how fast they start to work and how long they last. The health care provider will choose the best type of insulin for you and will tell you at what time of day to use it.Sometypesof insulin may be mixed together in an injection to get the best blood glucose control. Other types of insulin should never be mixed. You may need insulin shots from one to four times a day.

    Your health care provider or diabetes nurse educator will teach you how to give insulin injections. At first, a child's injections may be given by a parent or other adult. By age 14, most children can give their own injections.

    People with diabetes need to know how to adjust the amount of insulin they are taking:

    • When they exercise
    • When they are sick
    • When they will be eating more or less food and calories
    • When they are traveling


    By testing their blood sugar level, people with type 1 diabetes learn which foods and activities raise or lower their sugar level most. This helps them adjust their insulin doses to specific meals or activities to prevent blood sugar from becoming too high or low.

    The American Diabetes Association and the American Dietetic Association have information for planning healthy, balanced meals. It can help to talk with a registered dietitian or nutrition counselor.

    Regular exercise helps control the amount of sugar in the blood. It also helps burn extra calories and fat to reach a healthy weight.

    Talk toyour health care provider before starting any exercise program. People with type 1 diabetes must take special steps before, during, and after physical activity or exercise.


    Checking your blood sugar levelyourself and writing down the results tells you how well you are managing your diabetes. Talk to your doctor and diabetes educator about how often to check.

    To check your blood sugar level, you use adevice called a glucose meter. Usually, you prick your finger with a small needle called a lancet to get a tiny drop of blood. You place the blood on a test strip and put the strip into the meter. The meter gives you a reading that tells you the level of your blood sugar.

    Keep a record of your blood sugar for yourself and your doctor or nurse. The numberswill help if you have problems managing your diabetes. You and your doctor should set a target goal for your blood sugar level at different times during the day. You should also plan what to do when your blood sugar is too low or high.

    Low blood sugar is called hypoglycemia. Blood sugar levels below 70 mg/dL are too low and can harm you.


    People with diabetes are more likely than those without diabetes to have foot problems. Diabetes damages the nerves. This can make you less able to feel pressure on the foot. You may not notice a foot injury until you get a severe infection.

    Diabetes can also damage blood vessels. Small sores or breaks in the skin may become deeper skin sores (ulcers). The affected limb may need to be amputated if these skin ulcers do not heal or become larger, deeper, or infected.

    To prevent problems with your feet:

    • Stop smoking if you smoke.
    • Improve control of your blood sugar.
    • Get a foot exam by your health care provider at least twice a year and learn whether you have nerve damage.
    • Check and care for your feet every day. This is very important when you already have nerve or blood vessel damage or foot problems.
    • Make sure you wear the right kind of shoes. Ask your health care provider what is right for you.


    Your doctor may prescribe medicines or other treatments to reduce your chance of developing eye disease, kidney disease, and other conditions that are common in people with diabetes. These conditions are called complications of diabetes.

    Support Groups

    There are many diabetes resources that can help you understand more about type 1 diabetes. You can also learn ways to manage your condition so that you can live well with diabetes.

    Outlook (Prognosis)

    Diabetes is a lifelong disease and there is no cure.

    Tight control of blood glucose can prevent or delay diabetes complications. But these problemscan occur, even in people with good diabetes control.

    After many years, diabetes can lead to other serious problems:

    • You could have eye problems, including trouble seeing (especially at night) and sensitivity to light. You could become blind.
    • Your feet and skin could develop sores and infections. If you have these sores for too long, your foot or leg may need to be amputated. Infection can also cause pain and itching.
    • Diabetes may make it harder to control your blood pressure and cholesterol. This can lead to heart attack, stroke, and other problems. It can become harder for blood to flow to the legs and feet.
    • Nerves in the body can become damaged, causing pain, tingling, and numbness.
    • Because of nerve damage, you could have problems digesting the food you eat. You could feel weakness or have trouble going to the bathroom. Nerve damage can also make it harder for men to have an erection.
    • High blood sugar and other problems can lead to kidney damage. The kidneys may not work as well as they used to. They may even stop working so that you need dialysis or a kidney transplant.

    When to Contact a Medical Professional

    Call 911 if you have:

    • Chest pain or pressure, shortness of breath, or other signs of angina
    • Loss of consciousness
    • Seizures

    Call your health care provider or go to the emergency room if you have symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Also call your doctor if you have:

    • Blood sugar levels that are higher than the goals you and your doctor have set
    • Numbness, tingling, or pain in your feet or legs
    • Problems with your eyesight
    • Sores or infections on your feet
    • Symptoms that your blood sugar is getting too low (feeling weak or tired, trembling, sweating, feeling irritable, having trouble thinking clearly, fast heartbeat, double or blurry vision, feeling uneasy)
    • Symptoms that your blood sugar is too high (being very thirsty, having blurry vision, having dry skin, feeling weak or tired, needing to urinate a lot)
    • You are having blood sugar readings below 70 mg/dL

    You can treat early signs of hypoglycemia at home by eating sugar or candy, or by taking glucose tablets. If signs of hypoglycemia continue or your blood glucose level stays below 60 mg/dL, go to the hospital emergency room.


    Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented. There is no screening test for type 1 diabetes in people who have no symptoms.


    Alemzadeh R, Ali O. Diabetes mellitus. In: Kliegman RM, ed. Kliegman:Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 583.

    American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes -- 2013. Diabetes Care. 2013;36 Suppl 1:S11-S66.

    Eisenbarth GS, Buse JB. Type 1 diabetes mellitus. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier Saunders; 2011: chap 32.

    Inzucchi SE, Sherwin RS. Type 1 diabetes mellitus. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 236.


    • Endocrine glands


    • Insulin pump


    • Type I diabetes


    • Monitoring blood glucose...


      • Endocrine glands


      • Insulin pump


      • Type I diabetes


      • Monitoring blood glucose...


      A Closer Look

      Talking to your MD

        Self Care

        Tests for Type 1 Diabetes

          Review Date: 6/18/2013

          Reviewed By: Brent Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.

          The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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