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Anemia of chronic disease

Anemia of inflammation; Inflammatory anemia; AOCD; ACD

 

Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. There are many types of anemia.

Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is anemia that is found in people with certain long-term (chronic) medical conditions that involve inflammation.

Causes

 

Anemia is a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells in the blood. ACD is a common cause of anemia. Some conditions that can lead to ACD include:

  • Autoimmune disorders, such as Crohn disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and ulcerative colitis
  • Cancer, including lymphoma and Hodgkin disease
  • Long-term infections, such as bacterial endocarditis, osteomyelitis (bone infection), HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B or hepatitis C

 

Symptoms

 

Anemia of chronic disease is often mild. You may not notice any symptoms.

When symptoms occur, they may include:

  • Feeling weak or tired
  • Headache
  • Paleness
  • Shortness of breath

 

Exams and Tests

 

The doctor will perform a physical exam.

Anemia may be the first symptom of a serious illness, so finding its cause is very important.

Tests that may be done to diagnose anemia or rule out other causes include:

  • Hemoglobin level
  • Red blood count
  • Reticulocyte count
  • Serum ferritin level
  • Serum iron level
  • Other blood tests

 

Treatment

 

Anemia is often mild enough that it does not need treatment. It will likely get better when the disease that is causing it is treated.

The condition is rarely severe enough to need a blood transfusion.

 

Outlook (Prognosis)

 

The anemia will improve when the disease that is causing it is treated.

 

Possible Complications

 

Discomfort from symptoms is the main complication in most cases. Anemia may lead to a higher risk for death in people with heart failure.

 

When to Contact a Medical Professional

 

Call your health care provider if you have a long-term (chronic) disorder and you develop symptoms of anemia.

 

 

References

Ferri FF. Inflammatory anemia. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2016. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:703-704.

Little JA, Benz EJ Jr, Gardner LB. Anemia of chronic diseases. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 35.

 
  • Blood cells

    Blood cells - illustration

    Blood is comprised of red blood cells, platelets, and various white blood cells.

    Blood cells

    illustration

    • Blood cells

      Blood cells - illustration

      Blood is comprised of red blood cells, platelets, and various white blood cells.

      Blood cells

      illustration

    A Closer Look

     

    Talking to your MD

     

      Self Care

       

        Tests for Anemia of chronic disease

         

         

        Review Date: 2/1/2016

        Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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