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Iron deficiency anemia

Anemia - iron deficiency

 

Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. There are many types of anemia.

Iron deficiency anemia occurs when your body does not have enough iron. Iron helps make red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia.

Causes

 

Red blood cells bring oxygen to the body's tissues. Healthy red blood cells are made in your bone marrow. Red blood cells circulate through your body for 3 to 4 months. Parts of your body, such as your spleen, remove old blood cells.

Iron is a key part of red blood cells. Without iron, the blood cannot carry oxygen effectively. Your body normally gets iron through your diet. It also reuses iron from old red blood cells.

Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. This can occur because:

  • You lose more blood cells and iron than your body can replace
  • Your body does not do a good job of absorbing iron
  • Your body is able to absorb iron, but you are not eating enough foods that contain iron
  • Your body needs more iron than normal (such as if you are pregnant or breastfeeding)

Bleeding can cause iron loss. Common causes of bleeding are:

  • Heavy, long, or frequent menstrual periods
  • Cancer in the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, or colon
  • Esophageal varices, often from cirrhosis
  • The use of aspirin, ibuprofen, or arthritis medicines for a long time, which can cause gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Peptic ulcer disease

The body may not absorb enough iron in your diet due to:

  • Celiac disease
  • Crohn disease
  • Gastric bypass surgery
  • Taking too many antacids that contain calcium

You may not get enough iron in your diet if:

  • You are a strict vegetarian
  • You are an older adult and do not eat a balanced diet

 

Symptoms

 

You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild.

Most of the time, symptoms are mild at first and develop slowly. Symptoms may include:

  • Feeling weak or tired more often than usual, or with exercise
  • Headaches
  • Problems concentrating or thinking

As the anemia gets worse, symptoms may include:

  • Brittle nails
  • Desire to eat ice or other non-food things (pica)
  • Feeling lightheaded when you stand up
  • Pale skin color
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sore tongue

Symptoms of the conditions that cause iron deficiency anemia include:

  • Dark, tar-colored stools or blood in the stool
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding (women)
  • Pain in the upper belly (from ulcers)
  • Weight loss (in people with cancer)

 

Exams and Tests

 

To diagnose anemia, your health care provider may order these blood tests:

  • Hematocrit and hemoglobin (red blood cell measures)
  • RBC indices

To check iron levels, your provider may order:

  • Bone marrow biopsy (rarely done)
  • Iron binding capacity (TIBC) in the blood
  • Serum ferritin
  • Serum iron level

To check for cause of iron deficiency, your provider may order:

  • Colonoscopy
  • Fecal occult blood test
  • Upper endoscopy

 

Treatment

 

Treatment may include taking iron supplements and eating iron-rich foods.

Iron supplements (most often ferrous sulfate) build up the iron stores in your body. Most of the time, your provider will measure your iron level before you start supplements.

If you cannot take iron by mouth, you may need to take it through a vein (intravenous) or by an injection into the muscle.

Pregnant and breastfeeding women will need to take extra iron because they often cannot get enough iron from their normal diet.

Your hematocrit should return to normal after 2 months of iron therapy. You will need to keep taking iron for another 6 to 12 months to replace the body's iron stores in the bone marrow.

Iron-rich foods include:

  • Chicken and turkey
  • Dried lentils, peas, and beans
  • Fish
  • Meats (liver is the highest source)
  • Peanut butter
  • Soybeans
  • Whole-grain bread

Other sources include:

  • Oatmeal
  • Raisins, prunes, and apricots
  • Spinach, kale, and other greens

 

Outlook (Prognosis)

 

With treatment, the outcome is likely to be good, but it does depend on the cause.

 

When to Contact a Medical Professional

 

Call your provider if:

  • You have symptoms of iron deficiency
  • You notice blood in your stool

 

Prevention

 

A balanced diet should include enough iron. Red meat, liver, and egg yolks are high sources of iron. Flour, bread, and some cereals are fortified with iron. If advised by your provider, take iron supplements if you are not getting enough iron in your diet.

 

 

References

Bope ET, Kellerman RD. Hematology. In: Bope ET, Kellerman RD, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2016. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 12.

Brittenham GM. Disorders of iron homeostasis: iron deficiency and overload. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, Weitz JI, Anastasi JI, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 34.

Bunn HF. Approach to anemias. In: Goldmann L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 158.

 
  • Reticulocytes

    Reticulocytes - illustration

    In the presence of some anemias, the body increases production of red blood cells (RBCs), and sends these cells into the bloodstream before they are mature. These slightly immature cells are called reticulocytes, and are characterized by a network of filaments and granules. Reticulocytes normally make up 1% of the total RBC count, but may exceed levels of 4% when compensating for anemia.

    Reticulocytes

    illustration

  • Blood cells

    Blood cells - illustration

    Blood is comprised of red blood cells, platelets, and various white blood cells.

    Blood cells

    illustration

  • Hemoglobin

    Hemoglobin - illustration

    Hemoglobin is the most important component of red blood cells. It is composed of a protein called heme, which binds oxygen. In the lungs, oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide. Abnormalities of an individual's hemoglobin value can indicate defects in the normal balance between red blood cell production and destruction. Both low and high values can indicate disease states.

    Hemoglobin

    illustration

    • Reticulocytes

      Reticulocytes - illustration

      In the presence of some anemias, the body increases production of red blood cells (RBCs), and sends these cells into the bloodstream before they are mature. These slightly immature cells are called reticulocytes, and are characterized by a network of filaments and granules. Reticulocytes normally make up 1% of the total RBC count, but may exceed levels of 4% when compensating for anemia.

      Reticulocytes

      illustration

    • Blood cells

      Blood cells - illustration

      Blood is comprised of red blood cells, platelets, and various white blood cells.

      Blood cells

      illustration

    • Hemoglobin

      Hemoglobin - illustration

      Hemoglobin is the most important component of red blood cells. It is composed of a protein called heme, which binds oxygen. In the lungs, oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide. Abnormalities of an individual's hemoglobin value can indicate defects in the normal balance between red blood cell production and destruction. Both low and high values can indicate disease states.

      Hemoglobin

      illustration

    A Closer Look

     

    Self Care

     

      Tests for Iron deficiency anemia

       

       

      Review Date: 2/1/2016

      Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

      The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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