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    Acute confusional state; Acute brain syndrome

    Delirium is sudden severe confusion and rapid changes in brain function that occur with physical or mental illness.


    Delirium is most often caused by physical or mental illness and is usually temporary and reversible. Many disorders cause delirium, including conditions that deprive the brain of oxygen or other substances.

    Causes include:

    • Alcohol or sedative drug withdrawal
    • Drug abuse
    • Electrolyte or other body chemical disturbances
    • Infections such as urinary tract infections or pneumonia (more likely in people who already have brain damage from stroke or dementia)
    • Poisons
    • Surgery


    Delirium involves a quick change between mental states (for example, from lethargy to agitation and back to lethargy).

    Symptoms include:

    • Changes in alertness (usually more alert in the morning, less alert at night)
    • Changes in feeling (sensation) and perception
    • Changes in level of consciousness or awareness
    • Changes in movement (for example, may be slow moving or hyperactive)
    • Changes in sleep patterns, drowsiness
    • Confusion (disorientation) about time or place
    • Decrease in short-term memory and recall
      • Unable to remember events since delirium began (anterograde amnesia)
      • Unable to remember events before delirium (retrograde amnesia)
    • Disrupted or wandering attention
      • Inability to think or behave with purpose
      • Problems concentrating
    • Disorganized thinking
      • Speech that doesn't make sense (incoherent)
      • Inability to stop speech patterns or behaviors
    • Emotional or personality changes
      • Anger
      • Agitation
      • Anxiety
      • Apathy
      • Depression
      • Euphoria
      • Irritability
    • Incontinence
    • Movements triggered by changes in the nervous system (psychomotor restlessness)

    Exams and Tests

    The following tests may have abnormal results:

    • An exam of the nervous system (neurologic examination), including tests of feeling (sensation), thinking (cognitive function), and motor function
    • Neuropsychological studies

    The following tests may also be done:

    • Ammonia levels in the blood
    • Blood chemistry (comprehensive metabolic panel)
    • Blood gas analysis
    • Chest x-ray
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis
    • Creatine kinase level in blood
    • Drug, alcohol levels (toxicology screen)
    • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    • Head CT scan
    • Head MRI scan
    • Liver function tests
    • Mental status test
    • Serum magnesium
    • Thyroid function tests
    • Urinalysis
    • Vitamin B1 and B12 levels


    The goal of treatment is to control or reverse the cause of the symptoms. Treatment depends on the condition causing delirium. The person may need to stay in the hospital for a short time.

    Stopping or changing medications that worsen confusion, or that are not necessary, may improve mental function.Substances and medicinesthatcan worsen confusion include:

    • Alcohol
    • Analgesics, especially narcotics such as codeine, hydrocodone, morphine, or oxycodone
    • Anticholinergics
    • Central nervous system depressants
    • Cimetidine
    • Recreationaldrugs
    • Lidocaine

    Disorders that contribute to confusion should be treated. These may include:

    • Anemia
    • Decreased oxygen (hypoxia)
    • Heart failure
    • High carbon dioxide levels (hypercapnia)
    • Infections
    • Kidney failure
    • Liver failure
    • Nutritional disorders
    • Psychiatric conditions (such as depression)
    • Thyroid disorders

    Treating medical and mental disorders often greatly improves mental function.

    Medicines may be needed to control aggressive or agitated behaviors. These are usually started at very low dosages and adjusted as needed:

    • Antidepresssants (fluoxetine, citalopram), if depression is present
    • Dopamine blockers (haloperidol, quetiapine, or risperidone are most commonly used)
    • Sedatives (clonazepam or diazepam) in cases of delirium due to alcohol or sedative withdrawal
    • Thiamine

    Some people with delirium may benefit from hearing aids, glasses, or cataract surgery.

    Other treatments that may be helpful:

    • Behavior modification to control unacceptable or dangerous behaviors
    • Reality orientation to reduce disorientation

    Outlook (Prognosis)

    Acute conditions that cause delirium may occur with chronic disorders that cause dementia. Acute brain syndromes may be reversible by treating the cause.

    Delirium often lasts only about 1 week, although it may take several weeks for mental function to return to normal levels. Full recovery is common.

    Possible Complications

    • Loss of ability to function or care for self
    • Loss of ability to interact
    • Progression to stupor or coma
    • Side effects of medications used to treat the disorder

    When to Contact a Medical Professional

    Call your health care provider if there is a rapid change in mental status.


    Treating the conditions that cause delirium can reduce its risk. In hospitalized patients, avoiding sedatives, staying still (immobilization), and bladder catheters, and using reality orientation programs will reduce the risk of delirium in those at high risk.


    Mendez MF, Kremen SA. Delirium. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley’s Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 4.

    Rudolph JL, Marcantonio ER. Delirium. In: Duthie EH Jr., Katz PR, Malone ML. Practice of Geriatrics. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 26.


    • Central nervous system


      • Central nervous system


      A Closer Look

        Self Care

          Tests for Delirium

            Review Date: 2/27/2013

            Reviewed By: Luc Jasmin, MD, PhD, Department of Neurosurgery, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles and Department of Anatomy, University of California, San Francisco, CA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.

            The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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