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Granuloma annulare

Pseudorheumatoid nodule - subcutaneous granuloma annulare; GA

 

Granuloma annulare (GA) is a long-term (chronic) skin disease consisting of a rash with reddish bumps arranged in a circle or ring.

Causes

 

GA most often affects children and young adults. It is slightly more common in females.

The condition is usually seen in otherwise healthy people. Sometimes, it may be associated with diabetes or thyroid disease. The exact cause of GA is unknown.

 

Symptoms

 

GA usually causes no other symptoms, but the rash may be slightly itchy.

People usually notice a ring of small, firm bumps (papules) over the backs of the forearms, hands, or feet. Occasionally, they may find a number of rings.

In rare cases, GA appears as a firm nodule under the skin of the arms or legs. In some cases, the rash spreads all over the body.

 

Exams and Tests

 

Your health care provider may think you have a fungal infection when looking at your skin as the ring shape may look like ringworm. A skin scraping and KOH test can be used to tell the difference between GA and a fungal infection.

You may also need a skin punch biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of GA.

 

Treatment

 

GA can resolve on its own. You may not need treatment for GA, except for cosmetic reasons. Very strong steroid creams or ointments are sometimes used to clear up the rash more quickly. Injections of steroids directly into the rings may also be effective. Some providers may choose to freeze the bumps with liquid nitrogen.

People with severe or widespread cases may need ultraviolet light therapy or medicines that suppress the immune system.

 

Outlook (Prognosis)

 

Most GA disappears without treatment within 2 years. But, the rings can remain for many years. The appearance of new rings years later is not uncommon.

 

When to Contact a Medical Professional

 

Call your provider if you notice a ring anywhere on your skin that does not go away within a few weeks.

 

 

References

Habif TP. Cutaneous manifestations of internal disease. In: Habif TP, ed. Clinical Dermatology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 26.

Patterson JW. The granulomatous reaction pattern. In: Patterson JW, ed. Weedon's Skin Pathology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2016:chap 7.

Recica HF, Iichyshyn A. Granuloma annulare. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Jones-Berth J, Coulson I, eds. Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 91.

 
  • Granuloma annulare - close-up

    Granuloma annulare - close-up - illustration

    Granuloma annulare is usually a self-limiting disorder characterized by raised lesions arranged in an annular shape. While this disease can occur at any age, it is usually found in children or young adults. The disorder can range from mild to severe and localized to generalized. The raised lesions are usually flesh colored to a red-purple. This picture shows a close-up of a granuloma annulare that is subcutaneous (deeper). It demonstrates the shape of the lesion as well as the color.

    Granuloma annulare - close-up

    illustration

  • Granuloma annulare on the eyelid

    Granuloma annulare on the eyelid - illustration

    Granuloma annulare is usually a self-limiting disorder characterized by raised lesions arranged in an annulare shape. While this disease can occur at any age, it is usually found in children or young adults. The disorder can range from mild to severe and localized to generalized. The raised lesions are usually flesh colored to a red-purple. This picture shows a small granuloma on the eyelid.

    Granuloma annulare on the eyelid

    illustration

  • Granuloma annulare on the elbow

    Granuloma annulare on the elbow - illustration

    This is a picture of granuloma annulare on the elbow. Granuloma annulare is usually a self-limiting disorder characterized by red to flesh colored patches (plaques) arranged in a circular (annulare) shape. While this disease can occur at any age, it is usually found in children or young adults. The disorder can range from mild to severe and localized to generalized.

    Granuloma annulare on the elbow

    illustration

  • Granuloma annulare on the legs

    Granuloma annulare on the legs - illustration

    This is a picture of granuloma annulare on the shins. Granuloma annulare is usually a self-limiting disorder characterized by red to flesh colored patches (plaques) arranged in a circular (annulare) shape. While this disease can occur at any age, it is usually found in children or young adults. The disorder can range from mild to severe and localized to generalized.

    Granuloma annulare on the legs

    illustration

    • Granuloma annulare - close-up

      Granuloma annulare - close-up - illustration

      Granuloma annulare is usually a self-limiting disorder characterized by raised lesions arranged in an annular shape. While this disease can occur at any age, it is usually found in children or young adults. The disorder can range from mild to severe and localized to generalized. The raised lesions are usually flesh colored to a red-purple. This picture shows a close-up of a granuloma annulare that is subcutaneous (deeper). It demonstrates the shape of the lesion as well as the color.

      Granuloma annulare - close-up

      illustration

    • Granuloma annulare on the eyelid

      Granuloma annulare on the eyelid - illustration

      Granuloma annulare is usually a self-limiting disorder characterized by raised lesions arranged in an annulare shape. While this disease can occur at any age, it is usually found in children or young adults. The disorder can range from mild to severe and localized to generalized. The raised lesions are usually flesh colored to a red-purple. This picture shows a small granuloma on the eyelid.

      Granuloma annulare on the eyelid

      illustration

    • Granuloma annulare on the elbow

      Granuloma annulare on the elbow - illustration

      This is a picture of granuloma annulare on the elbow. Granuloma annulare is usually a self-limiting disorder characterized by red to flesh colored patches (plaques) arranged in a circular (annulare) shape. While this disease can occur at any age, it is usually found in children or young adults. The disorder can range from mild to severe and localized to generalized.

      Granuloma annulare on the elbow

      illustration

    • Granuloma annulare on the legs

      Granuloma annulare on the legs - illustration

      This is a picture of granuloma annulare on the shins. Granuloma annulare is usually a self-limiting disorder characterized by red to flesh colored patches (plaques) arranged in a circular (annulare) shape. While this disease can occur at any age, it is usually found in children or young adults. The disorder can range from mild to severe and localized to generalized.

      Granuloma annulare on the legs

      illustration

    Tests for Granuloma annulare

     

       

      Review Date: 4/29/2016

      Reviewed By: Kevin Berman, MD, PhD, Atlanta Center for Dermatologic Disease, Atlanta, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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