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    Cervical cancer

    Cancer - cervix

    Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix isthe lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina.


    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women. It is much less common in the United States because of the routine use of Pap smears.

    Cervical cancers start in the cells on the surface of the cervix. There are two types of cells on the surface of the cervix, squamous and columnar. Most cervical cancers are from squamous cells.

    Cervical cancer usually develops slowly. It starts as a precancerous condition called dysplasia. This condition can be detected by a Pap smear and is 100% treatable. It can take years forthese changes to turn into cervical cancer. Most women who are diagnosed with cervical cancer today have not had regular Pap smears or they have not followed up on abnormal Pap smear results.

    Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that is spread through sexual intercourse. There are many different types (also called strains)of HPV. Some strains lead to cervical cancer. Other strainscan cause genital warts.Yet others do not cause any problems at all.

    A woman's sexual habits and patterns can increase her riskof developingcervical cancer. Risky sexual practices include:

    • Having sex at an early age
    • Having multiple sexual partners
    • Havinga partner or manypartners whoare activein high-risk sexual activities

    Risk factors for cervical cancer include:

    • Not getting the HPV vaccine
    • Being poor
    • Women whose mothers took the drug DES (diethylstilbestrol) during pregnancy in the early 1960s to prevent miscarriage
    • Weakened immune system


    Most of the time, early cervical cancer has no symptoms. Symptoms that may occur include:

    • Abnormal vaginal bleeding between periods, after intercourse, or after menopause
    • Vaginal discharge that does not stop,and may be pale, watery, pink, brown, bloody, or foul-smelling
    • Periods thatbecome heavier and last longer than usual

    Cervical cancer may spread to the bladder, intestines, lungs, and liver.Often there are noproblems until the cancer is advanced and has spread. Symptoms of advanced cervical cancer may include:

    • Back pain
    • Bone pain or fractures
    • Fatigue
    • Leaking of urine or feces from the vagina
    • Leg pain
    • Loss of appetite
    • Pelvic pain
    • Single swollen leg
    • Weight loss

    Exams and Tests

    Precancerous changes of the cervix and cervical cancer cannot be seen with the naked eye. Special tests and tools are needed to spot such conditions.

    • Pap smears screen for precancers and cancer, but do not make a final diagnosis.
    • If abnormal changes are found, the cervix is usually examined under magnification. This procedureis called colposcopy. Pieces of tissue are surgically removed (biopsied) during this procedure. The tissue is sent to a laboratory for examination.
    • A procedure called cone biopsy may also be done.

    If cervical cancer is diagnosed, the health care provider will order more tests.These helpdetermine how far the cancer has spread. This is called staging. Tests may include:

    • Chest x-ray
    • CT scan of the pelvis
    • Cystoscopy
    • Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
    • MRI of the pelvis


    Treatment of cervical cancer depends on:

    • The stage of the cancer
    • The size and shape of the tumor
    • The woman's age and general health
    • Her desire to have children in the future

    Early cervical cancer can be cured by removing or destroying the precancerous or cancerous tissue. There are various surgical ways to do this without removing the uterus or damaging the cervix, so that a woman can still have children in the future.

    Types of surgery for early cervical cancer include:

    • Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) -- uses electricity to remove abnormal tissue
    • Cryotherapy -- freezes abnormal cells
    • Laser therapy -- uses light to burn abnormal tissue

    A hysterectomy (surgery to removethe uterus but not the ovaries) is not oftendone for cervical cancer that has not spread. It may be done in women who have repeated LEEP procedures.

    Treatment for more advanced cervical cancer may include:

    • Radical hysterectomy, which removes the uterus and much of the surrounding tissues, including lymph nodes and the upper part of the vagina.
    • Pelvic exenteration, an extreme type of surgery in which all of the organs of the pelvis, including the bladder and rectum, are removed.

    Radiation may be used to treat cancer that has spread beyond the cervix or cancer that has returned.

    • One type ofradiation therapy uses a device filled with radioactive material. The device is placed inside the vagina next to the cervical cancer. The device is removed before the patient goes home.
    • Another type of radiation beams radiation from a large machine onto the body where the cancer is located. It is similar to an x-ray.

    Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer. Some of the drugs used for cervical cancer chemotherapy include 5-FU, cisplatin, carboplatin, ifosfamide, paclitaxel, and cyclophosphamide. Sometimes radiation and chemotherapy are used before or after surgery.

    Support Groups

    You can ease the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone.

    Outlook (Prognosis)

    How well the patient does depends on many things, including:

    • Type of cervical cancer--some types do not respond well to treatment
    • Stage ofcancer
    • Age and generalhealth
    • If the cancer comes back after treatment

    Precancerous conditionscan becompletely cured when followed up and treated properly. Most women are alive in 5 years (5-year survival rate) for cancer that has spread to the inside of the cervix walls but not outside the cervix area. The 5-year survival rate falls as the cancer spreads outside the walls of the cervixinto other areas.

    Possible Complications

    • Women who have treatment to save the uterus have a high risk of the cancer coming back.
    • Surgery and radiation can cause problems withsexual, bowel, and bladderfunction.

    When to Contact a Medical Professional

    Call your health care provider ifyou:

    • Have not had regularPap smears
    • Have abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge


    Cervical cancer can be prevented by doing the following:

    • Get the HPV vaccine. Two types of vaccines are approved, Gardasil and Cervarix. They prevent against most types of HPV infection that cause cervical cancer. Your health care provider can tell you if the vaccine is right for you.
    • Practice safer sex. Using condoms during sex reduces the risk of HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
    • Limit the number of sexual partners you have. Avoid partners who are active in high-risk sex.
    • Get regular Pap smears as often as your health care provider recommends. Pap smears can help detect early changes, which can be treated before they turn into cervical cancer.
    • If you smoke, quit. Smoking increases your chance of getting cervical cancer.


    Jhingran A, Russell AH, Seiden MV et al. Cancers of the cervix, vulva, and vagina. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Niederhuber JE, et al. eds. Abeloff’s Clinical Oncology.4thed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone; 2008:chap 91.

    National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines): Cervical cancer. Version 2.2013. Available at November 16, 2012.

    Noller KL. Intraepithelial neoplasia of the lower genital tract (cervix, vulva): Etiology, screening, diagnostic techniques, management. In: Katz VL, Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 28.


    • Cervical cancer


    • Cervical cancer


    • Pap smear


    • Cervical biopsy


    • Cold cone biopsy


    • Cervical cancer


    • Cervical cancer


    • Pap smear


    • Cervical biopsy


    • Cold cone biopsy


    A Closer Look

    Talking to your MD

      Self Care

      Tests for Cervical cancer

      Review Date: 11/17/2012

      Reviewed By: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.

      The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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