Vulva cancerCancer - vulva; Cancer - perineum; Cancer - vulvar; Genital warts - vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer
Vulvar cancer is cancer that starts in the vulva. Vulvar cancer most often affects the labia, the folds of skin outside the vagina. In some cases, vulvar cancer starts on the clitoris or in glands on the sides of the vaginal opening.
The vulva is made up of the female genital parts that are outside the body. It includes the "lips" or folds of skin (labia), clitoris, and the openi...
Most vulvar cancers begin in skin cells called squamous cells. Other types of cancers found on the vulva are:
- Basal cell carcinoma
Vulvar cancer is rare. Risk factors include:
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancerous cells are also called malignant cells.
- Human papilloma virus (HPV, or genital warts) infection in women under age 50
- Chronic skin changes such as lichen sclerosis or squamous hyperplasia in women over age 50
- History of cervical cancer or vaginal cancer
Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina.
Women with a condition called vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) have a high risk of developing vulvar cancer that spreads. Most cases of VIN, though, never lead to cancer.
Women with this condition will often have itching around the vagina for years. They may have used different skin creams. They may also have bleeding.
Other skin changes that may occur around the vulva:
- Mole or freckle, which may be pink, red, white, or gray
- Skin thickening or lump
- Skin sore (ulcer)
- Pain or burning with urination
- Pain with intercourse
- Unusual odor
Some women with vulvar cancer have no symptoms.
Exams and Tests
The following tests are used to diagnose vulvar cancer:
- CT scan or MRI of the pelvis to look for cancer spread
A computed tomography (CT) scan of the pelvis is an imaging method that uses x-rays to create cross-sectional pictures of the area between the hip bo...
- Pelvic examination to look for any skin changes
Treatment involves surgery to remove the cancer cells. If the tumor is large (more than 2 cm) or has grown deeply into the skin, the lymph nodes in the groin area may also be removed.
Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells.
The term chemotherapy is used to describe cancer-killing drugs. Chemotherapy may be used to:Cure the cancerShrink the cancerPrevent the cancer from ...
You can ease the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone.
Cancer support group
The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer:American Cancer Society -- www. cancer. orgCancerCare -- www. cancercare. or...
Most women with vulvar cancer who are diagnosed and treated at an early stage do well. But a woman's outcome depends on:
- The size of the tumor
- The type of vulvar cancer
- Whether the cancer has spread
The cancer commonly comes back at or near the site of the original tumor.
Complications may include:
- Spread of the cancer to other areas of the body
- Side effects of radiation, surgery, or chemotherapy
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if you have any of these symptoms for more than 2 weeks:
- Local irritation
- Skin color change
- Sore on the vulva
Practicing safer sex may decrease your risk of vulvar cancer. This includes using condoms to protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
A vaccine is available to protect against certain forms of HPV infection. The vaccine is approved to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts. It may help prevent other cancers linked to HPV, such as vulvar cancer. The vaccine is given to young girls before they become sexually active, and to adolescents and women up to age 26.
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine protects against infection by certain strains of HPV. Human papillomavirus can cause cervical cancer and geni...
Routine pelvic exams can help diagnose vulvar cancer at an earlier stage. Earlier diagnosis improves your chances that treatment will be successful.
Jhingran A, Russell AH, Seiden MV, et al. Cancers of the cervix, vulva, and vagina. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 87.
National Cancer Institute: PDQ Vulvar Cancer Treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Updated February 11, 2016. cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/vulvar/HealthProfessional. Accessed March 17, 2016.
Russell AH, Horowitz NS. Cancers of the vulva and vagina. In: Gunderson LL, ed. Gunderson and Tepper: Clinical Radiation Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 60.
Review Date: 2/12/2016
Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.