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Bone tumor

Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign

 

A bone tumor is an abnormal growth of cells within a bone. A bone tumor may be cancerous (malignant) or noncancerous (benign).

Causes

 

The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include:

  • Genetic defects passed down through families
  • Radiation
  • Injury

In most cases, no specific cause is found.

Osteochondromas are the most common noncancerous (benign) bone tumors. They occur most often in young people between the ages of 10 and 20.

Cancers that start in the bones are called primary bone tumors. Cancers that start in another part of the body (such as the breast, lungs, or colon) are called secondary or metastatic bone tumors. They behave very differently from primary bone tumors.

Cancerous primary bone tumors include:

  • Chondrosarcoma
  • Ewing sarcoma
  • Fibrosarcoma
  • Osteosarcomas

Cancers that most often spread to the bone are cancers of the:

  • Breast
  • Kidney
  • Lung
  • Prostate
  • Thyroid

These forms of cancer usually affect older people.

Bone cancer is more common in persons who have a family history of cancers.

 

Symptoms

 

Symptoms of bone tumor may include any of the following:

  • Bone fracture, especially from slight injury (trauma)
  • Bone pain, may be worse at night
  • Occasionally a mass and swelling can be felt at the tumor site

Some benign tumors have no symptoms.

 

Exams and Tests

 

The health care provider will perform a physical exam. Tests that may be done include:

  • Alkaline phosphatase blood level
  • Bone biopsy
  • Bone scan
  • Chest x-ray
  • CT scan of the chest
  • MRI of the bone and surrounding tissue
  • X-ray of bone and surrounding tissue
  • PET scan

This following tests may also be ordered to monitor the disease:

  • Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme
  • Blood calcium level
  • Parathyroid hormone
  • Blood phosphorus level

 

Treatment

 

Some benign bone tumors go away on their own and do not need treatment. Your doctor will closely monitor you. You will likely need regular imaging tests, such as x-rays, to see if the tumor shrinks or grows.

Surgery may be needed to remove the tumor in some cases.

Treatment for cancerous bone tumors that have spread from other parts of the body depends on where the cancer started. Radiation therapy may be given to prevent fractures or to relieve pain. Chemotherapy may be used to prevent fractures or the need for surgery or radiation.

Tumors that start in the bone are rare. After biopsy, a combination of chemotherapy and surgery is usually necessary. Radiation therapy may be needed before or after surgery.

 

Support Groups

 

You can ease the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone.

 

Outlook (Prognosis)

 

How well you do depends on the type of bone tumor.

Outcome is usually people with noncancerous (benign) tumors. But some benign bone tumors can turn into cancer.

People with cancerous bone tumors that have not spread may be cured. The cure rate depends on the type of cancer, location, size, and other factors. Talk to your doctor about your particular cancer.

 

Possible Complications

 

Problems that may result from the tumor or treatment include:

  • Pain
  • Reduced function, depending on the tumor
  • Side effects of chemotherapy
  • Spread of the cancer to other nearby tissues (metastasis)

 

When to Contact a Medical Professional

 

Call your provider if you have symptoms of a bone tumor.

 

 

References

Coleman RE, Holen I. Bone metastases. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 51.

Heck RK Jr. Benign/aggressive tumors of bone. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 26.

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN guidelines): Bone cancer. Updated 2016. www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/bone.pdf. Accessed March 17, 2016.

 
  • X-ray

    X-ray - illustration

    X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation that can penetrate the body to form an image on film. Structures that are dense (such as bone) will appear white, air will be black, and other structures will be shades of gray depending on density. X-rays can provide information about obstructions, tumors, and other diseases, especially when coupled with the use of barium and air contrast within the bowel.

    X-ray

    illustration

  • Skeleton

    Skeleton - illustration

    The skeleton consists of groups of bones which protect and move the body.

    Skeleton

    illustration

  • Osteogenic sarcoma - X-ray

    Osteogenic sarcoma - X-ray - illustration

    This x-ray shows a malignant bone tumor (osteogenic sarcoma) of the knee. This type of tumor is usually seen in adolescents (around 15 years old). This tumor extends from the bone into the surrounding tissue.

    Osteogenic sarcoma - X-ray

    illustration

  • Ewings sarcoma - X-ray

    Ewings sarcoma - X-ray - illustration

    This x-ray shows a malignant bone tumor (Ewing sarcoma) of the upper arm bone (humerus). This type of tumor usually occurs during childhood and adolescence.

    Ewings sarcoma - X-ray

    illustration

    • X-ray

      X-ray - illustration

      X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation that can penetrate the body to form an image on film. Structures that are dense (such as bone) will appear white, air will be black, and other structures will be shades of gray depending on density. X-rays can provide information about obstructions, tumors, and other diseases, especially when coupled with the use of barium and air contrast within the bowel.

      X-ray

      illustration

    • Skeleton

      Skeleton - illustration

      The skeleton consists of groups of bones which protect and move the body.

      Skeleton

      illustration

    • Osteogenic sarcoma - X-ray

      Osteogenic sarcoma - X-ray - illustration

      This x-ray shows a malignant bone tumor (osteogenic sarcoma) of the knee. This type of tumor is usually seen in adolescents (around 15 years old). This tumor extends from the bone into the surrounding tissue.

      Osteogenic sarcoma - X-ray

      illustration

    • Ewings sarcoma - X-ray

      Ewings sarcoma - X-ray - illustration

      This x-ray shows a malignant bone tumor (Ewing sarcoma) of the upper arm bone (humerus). This type of tumor usually occurs during childhood and adolescence.

      Ewings sarcoma - X-ray

      illustration

    A Closer Look

     

      Self Care

       

        Tests for Bone tumor

         

         

        Review Date: 2/12/2016

        Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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