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Selective deficiency of IgA

IgA deficiency; Immunodepressed - IgA deficiency; Immunosuppressed - IgA deficiency; Hypogammaglobulinemia - IgA deficiency; Agammaglobulinemia - IgA deficiency

 

Selective deficiency of IgA is the most common immune deficiency disorder. People with this disorder have a low or absent level of a blood protein called immunoglobulin A.

Causes

 

IgA deficiency is usually inherited, which means it is passed down through families. However, cases of drug-induced IgA deficiency have been reported.

It may be inherited as an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive trait. It is usually found in people of European origin. It is less common in people of other ethnicities.

 

Symptoms

 

Many people with selective IgA deficiency have no symptoms.

If a person does have symptoms, they may include frequent episodes of:

  • Bronchitis (airway infection)
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Conjunctivitis (eye infection)
  • Gastrointestinal inflammation, including (ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and a sprue-like illness
  • Mouth infection
  • Otitis media (middle ear infection)
  • Pneumonia (lung infection)
  • Sinusitis (sinus infection)
  • Skin infections
  • Upper respiratory tract infections

Other symptoms include:

  • Bronchiectasis (a disease in which the small air sacs in the lungs become damaged and enlarged)
  • Asthma without a known cause

 

Exams and Tests

 

There may be a family history of IgA deficiency. Tests that may be done include:

  • IgG subclass measurements
  • Quantitative immunoglobulins
  • Serum immunoelectrophoresis

 

Treatment

 

No specific treatment is available. Some people gradually develop normal levels of IgA without treatment.

Treatment involves taking steps to reduce the number and severity of infections. Antibiotics are often needed to treat bacterial infections.

Immunoglobulins are given through a vein or by injection to boost the immune system.

Autoimmune disease treatment is based on the specific problem.

Note: People with complete IgA deficiency may develop anti-IgA antibodies if given blood products and immunoglobulins. This may lead to allergies or life-threatening anaphylactic shock. However, they can safely be given IgA-depleted immunoglobulins.

 

Outlook (Prognosis)

 

Selective IgA deficiency is less harmful than many other immunodeficiency diseases.

Some people with IgA deficiency will recover on their own and produce IgA in larger quantities over a period of years.

 

Possible Complications

 

Autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and celiac sprue may develop.

People with IgA deficiency may develop antibodies to IgA. As a result, they can have severe, even life-threatening reactions to transfusions of blood and blood products.

 

When to Contact a Medical Professional

 

If you have an IgA deficiency, be sure to mention it to your health care provider if immunoglobulin or other blood-component transfusions are suggested as a treatment for any condition.

 

Prevention

 

Genetic counseling may be of value to prospective parents with a family history of selective IgA deficiency.

 

 

References

Buckley RH. Primary defects of antibody production. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 124.

Cunningham-Rundles C. Primary immunodeficiency diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 250.

 
  • Antibodies

    Antibodies - illustration

    Antigens are large molecules (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, bacteria, and some non-living substances such as toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles. The immune system recognizes antigens and produces antibodies that destroy substances containing antigens.

    Antibodies

    illustration

    • Antibodies

      Antibodies - illustration

      Antigens are large molecules (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, bacteria, and some non-living substances such as toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles. The immune system recognizes antigens and produces antibodies that destroy substances containing antigens.

      Antibodies

      illustration

    A Closer Look

     

      Tests for Selective deficiency of IgA

       

         

        Review Date: 3/20/2016

        Reviewed By: Stuart I. Henochowicz, MD, FACP, Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Georgetown University Medical School, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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