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Interstitial keratitis

Keratitis interstitial; Cornea - keratitis

 

Interstitial keratitis is inflammation of the tissue of the cornea, the clear window on the front of the eye. The condition can lead to vision loss.

Causes

 

Interstitial keratitis is a serious condition in which blood vessels grow into the cornea. Such growth can cause loss of the normal clearness of the cornea. This condition is often caused by infections.

Syphilis is the most common cause of interstitial keratitis, but rare causes include:

  • Autoimmune diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis and sarcoidosis
  • Leprosy
  • Lyme disease
  • Tuberculosis

In the United States, most cases of syphilis are recognized and treated before this eye condition develops.

However, interstitial keratitis accounts for 10% of avoidable blindness in the least developed countries worldwide. 

 

Symptoms

 

Symptoms may include:

  • Eye pain
  • Excessive tearing
  • Sensitivity to light (photophobia)

 

Exams and Tests

 

Interstitial keratitis can be easily diagnosed by slit-lamp examination of the eyes. Blood tests and chest x-rays will most often be needed to confirm the infection or disease that is causing the condition.

 

Treatment

 

The underlying disease must be treated. Treating the cornea with corticosteroid drops may minimize scarring and help keep the cornea clear.

Once the active inflammation has passed, the cornea is left severely scarred and with abnormal blood vessels. The only way to restore vision at this stage is with a cornea transplant.

 

Outlook (Prognosis)

 

Diagnosing and treating interstitial keratitis and its cause early can preserve the clear cornea and good vision.

 

Possible Complications

 

A corneal transplant is not as successful for interstitial keratitis as it is for most other corneal diseases. The presence of blood vessels in the diseased cornea brings white blood cells to the newly transplanted cornea and increases the risk of rejection.

 

When to Contact a Medical Professional

 

People with interstitial keratitis need to be followed closely by ophthalmologist and a medical specialist with knowledge of the underlying disease.

A person with the condition should be checked immediately if:

  • Pain gets worse
  • Redness increases
  • Vision decreases

This is particularly crucial for people with corneal transplants.

 

Prevention

 

Prevention consists of avoiding the infection that causes interstitial keratitis. If you do get infected, get prompt and thorough treatment and follow-up.

 

 

References

Ginsberg SP. Corneal problems in systemic disease. In: Duane TD, Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology. 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:chap 43.

Lin A, Bouchard CS. Noninfectious keratitis. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 4.17.

World Health Organization. Causes of blindness and visual impairment. Prevention of blindness and visual impairment. www.who.int/blindness/causes/en. Accessed September 7, 2016.

 
  • Eye

    Eye - illustration

    The eye is the organ of sight, a nearly spherical hollow globe filled with fluids (humors). The outer layer or tunic (sclera, or white, and cornea) is fibrous and protective. The middle tunic layer (choroid, ciliary body and the iris) is vascular. The innermost layer (the retina) is nervous or sensory. The fluids in the eye are divided by the lens into the vitreous humor (behind the lens) and the aqueous humor (in front of the lens). The lens itself is flexible and suspended by ligaments which allow it to change shape to focus light on the retina, which is composed of sensory neurons.

    Eye

    illustration

    • Eye

      Eye - illustration

      The eye is the organ of sight, a nearly spherical hollow globe filled with fluids (humors). The outer layer or tunic (sclera, or white, and cornea) is fibrous and protective. The middle tunic layer (choroid, ciliary body and the iris) is vascular. The innermost layer (the retina) is nervous or sensory. The fluids in the eye are divided by the lens into the vitreous humor (behind the lens) and the aqueous humor (in front of the lens). The lens itself is flexible and suspended by ligaments which allow it to change shape to focus light on the retina, which is composed of sensory neurons.

      Eye

      illustration

    Self Care

     

      Tests for Interstitial keratitis

       

         

        Review Date: 8/20/2016

        Reviewed By: Franklin W. Lusby, MD, ophthalmologist, Lusby Vision Institute, La Jolla, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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