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Millipede toxin


Millipedes are worm-like bugs. Certain types of millipedes release a harmful substance (poison, or toxin) if they are threatened or if you handle them roughly.

The toxin millipedes release keeps away most predators. Some large millipede species can secrete these toxins as far as 80 cm (32 inches). Contact with these secretions may cause allergic reactions in some people.

This article is for information only. Do NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If you or someone you are with has an exposure, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.

Poisonous Ingredient

The harmful chemicals in millipede toxin are:

  • Hydrochloric acid
  • Hydrogen cyanide
  • Organic acids
  • Phenol
  • Cresols
  • Benzoquinones
  • Hydroquinones (in some millipedes)

Where Found


Millipede toxin contains these chemicals.




If the millipede toxin gets on the skin, symptoms may include:

  • Staining (skin turns brown)
  • Intense burning or itching
  • Blisters

If the millipede toxin gets in the eyes, symptoms may include:

  • Blindness (rare)
  • Inflammation of the membrane lining the eyelids ( conjunctivitis )
  • Inflammation of the cornea (keratitis)

Nausea and vomiting may occur if you come into contact with a large number of millipedes and their toxins.


Home Care


Wash the exposed area with plenty of soap and water. Do NOT use alcohol to wash the area. Wash eyes with plenty of water if any toxin gets in them. Get medical attention right away. Tell the health care provider if any toxin got in the eyes.


Before Calling Emergency


Have this information ready:

  • The person's age, weight, and condition
  • The type of millipede, if known
  • The time the person was exposed to the toxin


Poison Control


Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions.

This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.


What to Expect at the Emergency Room


If possible, bring the millipede to the emergency room for identification.

The provider will measure and monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Symptoms will be treated.


Outlook (Prognosis)


The symptoms often go away within 24 hours after exposure. A brownish discoloration of the skin may persist for months. Severe reactions are mainly seen from contact with tropical species of millipedes. The outlook may be more serious if the toxin gets in the eyes.




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Erickson TB, Marquez A. Arthropod envenomation and parasitism. In: Auerbach PS, ed. Wilderness Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 50.

Moss P, Beeching NJ. Arthropods and ectoparasites. In: Cohen J, Opal SM, Powderly WG, et al, eds. Infectious Diseases . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2010:chap 11.

Nogar JN, Clark RF. Arthropod bites and stings. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 140.

Steen CJ, Schwartz RA. Arthropod bites and stings. In: Wolff K, Goldsmith LA, Katz SI, et al, eds. Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine . 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2008:chap 210.


        Tests for Millipede toxin



          Review Date: 11/4/2015

          Reviewed By: Jesse Borke, MD, FACEP, FAAEM, Attending Physician at FDR Medical Services/Millard Fillmore Suburban Hospital, Buffalo, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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