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    Tongue problems

    Dark tongue; Burning tongue syndrome - symptoms

    Tongue problems include pain, swelling, or a change in how the tongue looks.


    The tongue is mainly made up of muscles. It is covered with a mucus membrane. Small bumps (papillae) cover the upper surface of the tongue.

    • Between the papillae are the taste buds, which allow you to taste.
    • The tongue moves food to help you chew and swallow.
    • The tongue also helps you form words.

    There are many different reasons for changes in the tongue's function and appearance.


    Tongue movement problems are most often caused by nerve damage. Rarely, problems moving the tongue may also be caused by a disorder where the band of tissue that attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth is too short. This is called ankyloglossia.

    Tongue movement disorders may result in:

    • Breastfeeding problems in newborns
    • Difficulty moving food during chewing and swallowing
    • Speech problems


    Taste problems can be caused by:

    • Damage to the taste buds
    • Nrve problems
    • Side effects of some medicines
    • An infection, or other condition.

    The tongue normally senses sweet, salty, sour, and bitter tastes. Other "tastes" are actually a function of the sense of smell.


    Tongue swelling occurs with:

    • Acromegaly
    • Amyloidosis
    • Down syndrome
    • Myxedema
    • Rhabdomyoma
    • Pader Willi Syndrome

    The tongue may get wider in persons who have no teeth and do not wear dentures.

    Sudden swelling of the tongue can happen due to an allergic reaction or a side effect of medicines.


    Color changes may occur when the tongue becomes inflamed (glossitis). Papillae (bumps on the tongue) are lost, causing the tongue to appear smooth. Geographic tongue is a patchy form of glossitis where the location of inflammation and the appearance of the tongue change from day to day.


    Hairy tongue is a harmless condition in which the tongue looks hairy or furry. The disorder usually goes away with antibiotics.


    Sometimes the upper surface of the tongue turns black or brown in color. This is an unsightly condition but it is not harmful.


    Pain may occur with glossitis and geographic tongue. Tongue pain may also occur with:

    • Diabetic neuropathy
    • Leukoplakia
    • Mouth ulcers
    • Oral cancer

    After menopause, some women have a sudden feeling that their tongue has been burned. This is called burning tongue syndrome or idiopathic glossopyrosis. There is no specific treatment for burning tongue syndrome, but capsaicin (the ingredient that makes peppers spicy) can offer relief to some people.


    Minor infections or irritations are the most common cause of tongue soreness. Injury, such as biting the tongue, can cause painful sores. Heavy smoking can irritate the tongue and make it painful.

    A viral ulcer on the tongue or elsewhere in the mouth is common. This is called a canker sore and can appear for no known reason.

    Possible causes of tongue pain include:

    • Anemia
    • Cancer
    • Dentures that irritate the tongue
    • Oral herpes (ulcers)
    • Neuralgia
    • Pain from teeth and gums
    • Pain from the heart

    Possible causes of tongue tremor:

    • Neurological disorder
    • Overactive thyroid

    Possible causes of white tongue:

    • Local irritation
    • Smoking and alcohol use

    Possible causes of smooth tongue:

    • Anemia
    • Vitamin B12 deficiency

    Possible causes of red (ranging from pink to reddish-purple) tongue:

    • Folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency
    • Pellagra
    • Pernicious anemia
    • Plummer-Vinson syndrome
    • Sprue

    Possible causes of tongue swelling:

    • Acromegaly
    • Allergic reaction to food or medicine
    • Amyloidosis
    • Angioedema
    • Beckwith syndrome
    • Cancer of the tongue
    • Congenital micrognathia
    • Down syndrome
    • Hypothyroidism
    • Infection
    • Leukemia
    • Lymphangioma
    • Neurofibromatosis
    • Pellagra
    • Pernicious anemia
    • Strep infection
    • Tumor of the pituitary gland

    Possible causes of a hairy tongue:

    • AIDS
    • Antibiotic therapy
    • Drinking coffee
    • Dyes in drugs and food
    • Chronic medical conditions
    • Overuse of mouthwashes containing oxidizing or astringent ingredients
    • Radiation of the head and neck
    • Tobacco use

    Home Care

    Practice good oral hygiene for hairy tongue and black tongue. Be sure to eat a well-balanced diet.

    Canker sores will heal on their own.

    See your dentist if you have a tongue problem caused by dentures.

    Antihistamines can help relieve a swollen tongue caused by allergies. Avoid the food or drug that causes the tongue swelling. Seek medical attention right away if swelling is starting to make breathing difficult.

    When to Contact a Medical Professional

    Call your doctor if your tongue problem persists.

    What to Expect at Your Office Visit

    The doctor will perform a physical exam, to look closely at the tongue. You may be asked questions such as:

    • When did you first notice the problem?
    • Have you had similar symptoms before?
    • Do you have pain, swelling, breathing problems, or difficulty swallowing? Are there problems with speaking or moving the tongue?
    • Have you noticed changes in taste?
    • Do you have a tongue tremor?
    • What makes the problem worse? What have you tried that helps?
    • Do you wear dentures?
    • What have you tried that helps?
    • Are there problems with the teeth, gums, lips, or throat? Does the tongue bleed?
    • Do you have a rash or fever? Do you have allergies?
    • What medicines do you take?
    • Do you use tobacco products or drink alcohol?

    You may need blood tests or a biopsy to check for other conditions.

    Treatment depends on the cause of the tongue problem. Possible treatments include:

    • If nerve damage has caused a tongue movement problem, the condition must be treated. Therapy may be needed to improve speech and swallowing.
    • Ankyloglossia may not need to be treated, unless you have speech or swallowing problems. Surgery to release the tongue can relieve the problem.
    • Medicine may be prescribed for mouth ulcers, leukoplakia, oral cancer, and other mouth sores.
    • Anti-inflammatory medicines may be prescribed for glossititis and geographic tongue.


    Reamy BV, Derby R, Bunt CW. Common tongue conditions in primary care. Am Fam Physician. 2010;81(5):627-634.

    Mirowski GW, Mark LA. Oral disease and oral-cutaneous manifestations of gastrointestinal and liver disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2010:chap 22.

    Pfeiffer RF. Neurogenic dysphagia. In: Bradley WG, Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, eds. Neurology in Clinical Practice. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2008:chap 13.

    Finelli PF, Mair RG. Disturbances of smell and taste. In: Bradley WG, Daroff Rb, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, eds. Neurology in Clinical Practice. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2008:chap 19.


    • Black hairy tongue


    • Black hairy tongue


      • Black hairy tongue


      • Black hairy tongue


      A Closer Look

        Self Care

          Tests for Tongue problems

            Review Date: 3/22/2013

            Reviewed By: Ashutosh Kacker, MD, BS, Associate Professor of Otolaryngology, Weill Cornell Medical College, and Associate Attending Otolaryngologist, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.

            The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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