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Overweight

Overweight - body mass index; Obesity - body mass index; BMI

 

Nearly 2 out of every 3 adults in the United States are overweight.

Considerations

 

Experts often rely on a formula called the body mass index (BMI) to determine if a person is overweight. The BMI estimates your level of body fat based on your height and weight.

  • A BMI from 18.5 to 24.9 is considered normal.
  • Adults with a BMI of 25 to 29.9 are considered overweight. Since the BMI is an estimate, it is not accurate for all people. Some people in this group, such as athletes, may have a lot of muscle weight, and therefore not as much fat. These people will not have an increased risk of health problems due to their weight.
  • Adults with a BMI of 30 to 39.9 are considered obese.
  • Adults with a BMI greater than or equal to 40 are considered extremely obese.
  • Anyone more than 100 pounds (45 kilograms) overweight is considered morbidly obese.

The risk of many medical problems is higher for adults who have excess body fat and fall into the overweight groups.

CHANGING YOUR LIFESTYLE

An active lifestyle and plenty of exercise, along with healthy eating, is the safest way to lose weight. Even modest weight loss can improve your health. Get support from family and friends.

Your main goal should be to learn new, healthy ways of eating and make them part of your daily routine.

Many people find it hard to change their eating habits and behaviors. You may have practiced some habits for so long that you may not even know they are unhealthy, or you do them without thinking. You need to be motivated to make lifestyle changes. Make the behavior change part of your life over the long term. Know that it takes time to make and keep a change in your lifestyle.

Work with your health care provider and dietitian to set realistic and safe daily calorie counts that help you lose weight. Keep in mind that if you drop your weight slowly and steadily, you are more likely to keep them off. Your dietitian can teach you about:

  • Shopping for healthy foods
  • How to read nutrition labels
  • Healthy snacks
  • Portion sizes
  • Sweetened drinks

 

 

References

Boham E, Stone PM, DeBusk R. Obesity. In: Rakel RE, Rakel DP, eds. Textbook of Family Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Sanders; 2016:chap 36.

Cowley MA, Brown WA, Considine RV. Obesity. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 26.

Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apvian CM, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. Circulation. 2014;129 (25 Suppl 2):S102-S138. PMID: 24222017 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24222017.

 
  • Different types of weight gain

    Different types of weight gain - illustration

    Weight gain in the area of and above the waist (apple type) is more dangerous than weight gained around the hips and flank area (pear type). Fat cells in the upper body have different qualities than those found in hips and thighs.

    Different types of weight gain

    illustration

  • Lipocytes (fat cells)

    Lipocytes (fat cells) - illustration

    When energy input is equal to energy output, there is no expansion of fat cells (lipocytes) to accommodate excess. It is only when more calories are taken in than used that the extra fat is stored in the lipocytes and the person begins to accumulate fat.

    Lipocytes (fat cells)

    illustration

  • Obesity and health

    Obesity and health - illustration

    Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of cancer. It is also a risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis and sleep apnea.

    Obesity and health

    illustration

    • Different types of weight gain

      Different types of weight gain - illustration

      Weight gain in the area of and above the waist (apple type) is more dangerous than weight gained around the hips and flank area (pear type). Fat cells in the upper body have different qualities than those found in hips and thighs.

      Different types of weight gain

      illustration

    • Lipocytes (fat cells)

      Lipocytes (fat cells) - illustration

      When energy input is equal to energy output, there is no expansion of fat cells (lipocytes) to accommodate excess. It is only when more calories are taken in than used that the extra fat is stored in the lipocytes and the person begins to accumulate fat.

      Lipocytes (fat cells)

      illustration

    • Obesity and health

      Obesity and health - illustration

      Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of cancer. It is also a risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis and sleep apnea.

      Obesity and health

      illustration

    A Closer Look

     

      Talking to your MD

       

        Self Care

         

        Tests for Overweight

         

           

          Review Date: 8/14/2015

          Reviewed By: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Internal review and update on 09/01/2016 by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

          The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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