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Abdominal bloating

Bloating; Meteorism

 

Abdominal bloating is a condition in which the belly (abdomen) feels full and tight. Your belly may look swollen (distended).

Causes

 

Common causes include:

  • Swallowing air
  • Constipation
  • Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD)
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Lactose intolerance and problems digesting other foods
  • Overeating
  • Small bowel bacterial overgrowth
  • Weight gain

You may have bloating if you take the oral diabetes medicine acarbose. Some other medicines or foods containing lactulose or sorbitol, may cause bloating.

More serious disorders that may cause bloating are:

  • Ascites and tumors
  • Celiac disease
  • Dumping syndrome
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Problems with the pancreas not producing enough digestive enzymes (pancreatic insufficiency)

 

Home Care

 

You may take the following steps:

  • Avoid chewing gum or carbonated drinks. Stay away from foods with high levels of fructose or sorbitol.
  • Avoid foods that can produce gas, such as Brussels sprouts, turnips, cabbage, beans, and lentils.
  • Do not eat too quickly.
  • Stop smoking.

Get treatment for constipation if you have it. However, fiber supplements such as psyllium or 100% bran can make your symptoms worse.

You may try simethicone and other medicines you buy at the drugstore to help with gas. Charcoal caps can also help.

Watch for foods that trigger your bloating so you can start to avoid those foods. These may include:

  • Milk and other dairy products that contain lactose
  • Certain carbohydrates that contain fructose, known as FODMAPs

 

When to Contact a Medical Professional

 

Call your health care provider if you have:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Blood in the stools or dark, tarry looking stools
  • Diarrhea
  • Heartburn that is getting worse
  • Vomiting
  • Weight loss

 

 

References

Azpiroz F. Intestinal gas. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 17.

McQuaid KR. Approach to the patient with gastrointestinal disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 132.

 
  • Abdominal ultrasound

    Abdominal ultrasound - illustration

    The test is done in the ultrasound or radiology department. A conducting paste is applied to your abdomen while you are lying down. The transducer (a hand-held instrument) is then moved over your abdomen.

    Abdominal ultrasound

    illustration

    • Abdominal ultrasound

      Abdominal ultrasound - illustration

      The test is done in the ultrasound or radiology department. A conducting paste is applied to your abdomen while you are lying down. The transducer (a hand-held instrument) is then moved over your abdomen.

      Abdominal ultrasound

      illustration

    A Closer Look

     

      Self Care

       

        Tests for Abdominal bloating

         

           

          Review Date: 5/21/2016

          Reviewed By: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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