Myoglobin blood testSerum myoglobin
The myoglobin blood test measures the level of the protein myoglobin in the blood.
Myoglobin can also be measured with a urine test.
The myoglobin urine test is done to detect the presence of myoglobin in urine. Myoglobin can also be measured with a blood test.
How the Test is Performed
A blood sample is needed.
Venipuncture is the collection of blood from a vein. It is most often done for laboratory testing.
How to Prepare for the Test
No special preparation is needed.
How the Test will Feel
When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away.
Why the Test is Performed
Myoglobin is a protein in heart and skeletal muscles. When you exercise, your muscles use up available oxygen. Myoglobin has oxygen attached to it, which provides extra oxygen for the muscles to keep at a high level of activity for a longer period.
When muscle is damaged, myoglobin in muscle cells is released into the bloodstream. The kidneys help remove myoglobin from the blood into the urine. When the level of myoglobin is too high, it can damage the kidneys.
This test is ordered when your health care provider suspects you have muscle damage, such as of the heart or skeletal muscle.
The normal range is 0 to 85 ng/mL.
Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or may test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.
What Abnormal Results Mean
An increased level of myoglobin may be due to:
- Heart attack
- Malignant hyperthermia (very rare)
- Muscular dystrophy
- Breakdown of muscle tissue that leads to the release of muscle fiber contents into the blood (rhabdomyolysis)
- Skeletal muscle inflammation (myositis)
- Skeletal muscle ischemia (oxygen deficiency)
- Skeletal muscle trauma
There is very little risk involved with having your blood taken. Veins and arteries vary in size from one patient to another, and from one side of the body to the other. Taking blood from some people may be more difficult than from others.
Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight, but may include:
- Excessive bleeding
- Fainting or feeling lightheaded
- Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
- Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)
Nagaraju K, Lundberg IE. Inflammatory diseases of muscle and other myopathies. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, et al., eds. Kelly's Textbook of Rheumotology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 85.
Selcen D. Muscle diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 421.
Review Date: 2/8/2015
Reviewed By: Laura J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.