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Bladder biopsy

Biopsy - bladder

 

Bladder biopsy is a procedure in which small pieces of tissue are removed from the bladder. The tissue is tested under a microscope.

How the Test is Performed

 

A bladder biopsy can be done as part of a cystoscopy. Cystoscopy is a telescopic examination of the inside of the bladder. A small piece of tissue or the entire abnormal area is removed. The tissue is sent to the lab to be tested if:

  • Abnormalities of the bladder are found during this exam
  • A tumor is seen

 

How to Prepare for the Test

 

You must sign an informed consent form before you have a bladder biopsy. In most cases, you are asked to urinate just before the procedure. You may also be asked to take an antibiotic before the procedure.

For infants and children, the preparation you can provide for this test depends on your child's age, previous experiences, and level of trust. For general information regarding how you can prepare your child, see the following topics:

  • Infant test or procedure preparation (birth to 1 year)
  • Toddler test or procedure preparation (1 to 3 years)
  • Preschooler test or procedure preparation (3 to 6 years)
  • School age test or procedure preparation (6 to 12 years)
  • Adolescent test or procedure preparation (12 to 18 years)

 

How the Test will Feel

 

You may have a slight discomfort as the cystoscope is passed through your urethra into your bladder. You will feel discomfort that is similar to a strong urge to urinate when the fluid has filled your bladder.

You may feel a pinch during the biopsy. There may be a burning sensation when the blood vessels are sealed to stop bleeding (cauterized).

After the cystoscope is removed, your urethra may be sore. You may feel a burning sensation during urination for a day or two.

In some cases, the biopsy needs to be taken from a large area. In that case, you may need general or spinal anesthesia before the procedure.

 

Why the Test is Performed

 

This test is most often done to check for cancer of the bladder or urethra.

 

Normal Results

 

The bladder wall is smooth. The bladder is of a normal size, shape, and position. There are no blockages, growths, or stones.

 

What Abnormal Results Mean

 

The presence of cancer cells indicates bladder cancer. The type of cancer can be determined from the biopsy sample.

Other abnormalities may include:

  • Bladder diverticula
  • Cysts
  • Infection
  • Ulcers

 

Risks

 

There is some risk for urinary tract infection.

There is a slight risk for excessive bleeding. There may be a rupture of the bladder wall with the cystoscope or during biopsy.

There is also a risk that the biopsy will fail to diagnose a serious condition.

 

Considerations

 

You will likely have a small amount of blood in your urine shortly after this procedure. If the bleeding continues after you urinate, contact your health care provider.

Also contact your provider if:

  • You have pain, chills, or a fever.
  • You are producing less urine than usual (oliguria).
  • You cannot urinate despite a strong urge to do so.

 

 

References

Bladder tumors. First Consult. 2012. www.clinicalkey.com/#!/content/medical_topic/21-s2.0-1014644. Accessed June 9, 2016.

Duty BD, Conlin MJ. Principles of urologic endoscopy. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 7.

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Cystoscopy and ureteroscopy. www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/diagnostic-tests/cystoscopy-ureteroscopy/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed June 9, 2016.

Smith TG, Coburn M. Urologic surgery. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 72.

 
  • Bladder catheterization, female

    Bladder catheterization, female - illustration

    A catheter (a hollow tube, often with an inflatable balloon tip) may be inserted into the urinary bladder when there is a urinary obstruction, following surgical procedures to the urethra, in unconscious patients (due to surgical anesthesia, coma, or other reasons), or for any other problem in which the bladder needs to be kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time.

    Bladder catheterization, female

    illustration

  • Bladder catheterization, male

    Bladder catheterization, male - illustration

    Catheterization is accomplished by inserting a catheter (a hollow tube, often with and inflatable balloon tip) into the urinary bladder. This procedure is performed for urinary obstruction, following surgical procedures to the urethra, in unconscious patients (due to surgical anesthesia, coma, or other reasons), or for any other problem in which the bladder needs to be kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable than in females because of the longer urethra.

    Bladder catheterization, male

    illustration

  • Female urinary tract

    Female urinary tract - illustration

    The female and male urinary tracts are relatively the same except for the length of the urethra.

    Female urinary tract

    illustration

  • Male urinary tract

    Male urinary tract - illustration

    The male and female urinary tracts are relatively the same except for the length of the urethra.

    Male urinary tract

    illustration

  • Bladder biopsy

    Bladder biopsy - illustration

    A bladder biopsy is performed if abnormalities of the bladder are found, or if a tumor is grossly visible. During the biopsy a small portion of tissue is removed and sent to the laboratory for analysis.

    Bladder biopsy

    illustration

    • Bladder catheterization, female

      Bladder catheterization, female - illustration

      A catheter (a hollow tube, often with an inflatable balloon tip) may be inserted into the urinary bladder when there is a urinary obstruction, following surgical procedures to the urethra, in unconscious patients (due to surgical anesthesia, coma, or other reasons), or for any other problem in which the bladder needs to be kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time.

      Bladder catheterization, female

      illustration

    • Bladder catheterization, male

      Bladder catheterization, male - illustration

      Catheterization is accomplished by inserting a catheter (a hollow tube, often with and inflatable balloon tip) into the urinary bladder. This procedure is performed for urinary obstruction, following surgical procedures to the urethra, in unconscious patients (due to surgical anesthesia, coma, or other reasons), or for any other problem in which the bladder needs to be kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable than in females because of the longer urethra.

      Bladder catheterization, male

      illustration

    • Female urinary tract

      Female urinary tract - illustration

      The female and male urinary tracts are relatively the same except for the length of the urethra.

      Female urinary tract

      illustration

    • Male urinary tract

      Male urinary tract - illustration

      The male and female urinary tracts are relatively the same except for the length of the urethra.

      Male urinary tract

      illustration

    • Bladder biopsy

      Bladder biopsy - illustration

      A bladder biopsy is performed if abnormalities of the bladder are found, or if a tumor is grossly visible. During the biopsy a small portion of tissue is removed and sent to the laboratory for analysis.

      Bladder biopsy

      illustration

    A Closer Look

     

      Talking to your MD

       

        Self Care

         

          Tests for Bladder biopsy

           

           

          Review Date: 5/23/2016

          Reviewed By: Jennifer Sobol, DO, urologist with the Michigan Institute of Urology, West Bloomfield, MI. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

          The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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